a&p case study

Topics: Cortisol, Testosterone, Endocrine system Pages: 6 (1462 words) Published: July 23, 2014
There are many various conditions and diseases affecting the endocrine system. Here we will discuss several and describe the endocrine gland, hormone, target tissue, symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test is done to check for the hormone hCG in blood or urine (Staff, 2012). The hCG hormone is made during pregnancy by the placenta or can be abnormally made by certain tumors. The hCG test can be performed to test if a woman is pregnant or not, as part of a screening test for birth defects, in a woman who may have abnormal tissue growth in her uterus, a molar pregnancy, or a cancer in the uterus rather than a normal pregnancy. HCG levels can even be measured in a man to see whether he has cancer of the testicles or not. HCG helps to maintain your pregnancy and affects the development of the baby.

A condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is Cushing disease. Cushing is caused by a tumor or excess growth of the pituitary gland. The ACTH released stimulates production and release of cortisol, a stress hormone. With Cushing disease the excess ACTH being released causes the glands to make too much cortisol. Some symptoms of this disease are upper body obesity, acne, backache, collection of fat between the shoulders, weak muscles, fatigue, and mental changes. Treatment involves surgery to remove the pituitary tumor, and then the pituitary gland may slowly start to work again and return to normal.

A disease just the opposite of Cushing’s disease is Addison’s disease. Addison’s disease is a disorder that occurs when your body produces insufficient amounts of certain hormones produced by the adrenal glands. This causes too little cortisol and often insufficient levels of aldosterone. Addison’s disease is also known as adrenal insufficiency and can occur in all age groups and affects both sexes equally. Taking hormones to replace the insufficient amounts being made by your adrenal glands is involved for treatment. Symptoms usually develop slowly, often over several months, and may include muscle weakness, fatigue, weight loss, hyperpigmentation, low blood pressure, salt craving, nausea, irritability, depression, and body hair loss. It can be caused by the cortex being damaged, TB, infections, spread of cancer, or bleeding into the adrenal glands, and when the pituitary gland is diseased.

A rare condition in which there is too much growth hormone; produced by the pituitary gland; in the body is Acromegaly. Usually this is caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. Symptoms may include body odor, carpal tunnel syndrome, decreased peripheral vision, fatigue, excessive height/sweating, headache, hoarseness, sleep apnea, or widely spaced teeth. Surgery to remove the pituitary tumor often corrects the abnormal growth hormone but can sometimes be too large to remove completely.

Cretinism also known as Congenital hypothyroidism is a disease of the thyroid gland. Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine are the main hormones secreted by the thyroid gland. In cretinism there is a low secretion of these hormones which is most commonly referred to as an underactive thyroid gland. In most cases no underlying cause of the deficiency is found but numerous genetic syndromes, underactive pituitary gland (secondary), or trauma can be risk factors. Early diagnosis of Cretinism is imperative in newborns because of the critical development of the nervous system that takes place in the first few months after birth. Most of the effects are easily reversible but if not caught in time may result in irreversible damage to the nervous system with marked mental retardation. The standard approach to treatment of hypothyroidism is replacement therapy with Thyroxine.

In the late 1930’s anabolic steroids were developed primarily to treat hypogonadism, a condition in which the testes do not produce sufficient testosterone for normal growth, development, and...

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Smart Publications . (2014). Retrieved May 30, 2014, from Smart Publications : http://www.smart-publications.com/articles/oxytocin-the-real-love-hormone
Staff, H. (2012, April 4). AOG Dalton. Retrieved May 28, 2014, from AOG Dalton : http://www.aogdalton.com/health-library/hw-view.php?DOCHWID=hw42062
Staff, M. C. (1998-2014). Mayo Clinic . Retrieved May 29, 2014, from Mayo Clnic : http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/basics/causes/con-20021340
Virtual Medical Centre . (2014, January 24). Retrieved May 29 2014, 2014, from Virtual Medical Centre : http://www.myvmc.com/diseases/congenital-hypothyroidism-cretinism/
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