Chapter 6: A Strong Start for the Nation 1789 to 1815
1. Jay’s Treaty-The existence of the forts and British troops stationed in the Northwest Territory violated the Treaty of Paris. Hoping to avoid war, President Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to Britain in 1794 to negotiate a settlement. John Jay negotiated in which the British agreed to give up their northwestern forts in exchange for the United States paying debts owed to the British. But the British did not stop arming American Indians, impressing American soldiers, or seizing American ships. Many Americans accused John Jay of being a traitor because he kissed the queen’s hand. Thus, Jeffersonian mobs hanged and burned effigies of John Jay.
2. Tecumseh-Hunters, trappers, and farmers pushed westward into lands occupied by American Indians. Tecumseh was a Shawnee leader who had become convinced that American Indian’s best hope for survival rested in a military alliance among the Indian nations.
3. Pinckney’s treaty- Spain feared that a US alliance with Britain could threaten Spanish territory in North America. Thus, Spain moved quickly to settle its disputes with the US which resulted in the Pickney’s Treaty. Thus, Thomas Pinckney set the southern border of the US with Spanish Florida at the 31st parallel. The treaty also guaranteed US navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
4. Toussaint L’Ouventure-When Napolean chose to sell the Louisiana Territory because he did not have a strong naval base in the West Indies. France had lost control of the colony after its African slaves had revolted in 1791 under the leadership of Toussaint-Louverture who was a military strategist, former slave, and grandson of an African chief.
5. Battle of Tippecanoe-General William Henry Harrison marshaled troops for an attack along the Tippecanoe River in the Indian Territory. The Battle of Tippecanoe was a battle that ended with a US victory over an American Indian confederation that wanted to stop white settlement in the Northwest Territory. It increased tensions between Britain and the US.
6. Whiskey Rebellion-When Congress passed a bill authorizing the collection of tax on whiskey, some 500 men attacked federal officials, tarring and feathering them. Protesters then organized a larger militia that included residents of Pittsburgh. They intended to march to Philadelphia and start the Whiskey Rebellion to challenge federal authority. President Washington responded by sending 13,000 men scared off the “whiskey boys.”
7. Battle of the Thames-The US was strategy focused on the conquest of Canada. The US was successful during wars at sea and in the Great Lakes. Encouraged by these kinds of naval victories, General Harrison and his 3,00 troops crossed into Canada. Harrison defeated the British and their American Indian allies during the Battle of Thames and won the Northwest Territory.
8. Lewis and Clark Expedition-President Jefferson assigned the task of mapping the new Louisiana Territory to two skilled frontiersmen, Lewis and Clark. With a crew of 45 explorers, the Louis and Clark expedition left St. Louis in May 1804. They recorded all observations in detailed journals of their travels. American Indians and a French-Canadian fur trader and his Shoshone wife, Sacagawea, aided the expedition. Sacagawea showed members of the expedition the best places to fish, to hunt game, and to find wild vegetables. After nearly two and a half years, the expedition returned with plant and animal specimens, animal bones, and pelts, and various soil and mineral samples.
9. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions-Throughout the country, Republican newspaper editors and politicians were arrested for sedition. Many saw that the Alien and Sedition Acts, a series of laws intended to protect the nation and to weaken the Republicans, as attempts to curb the rights of individuals. Republicans voiced their protests in resolutions. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky...
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