WOMEN, QUALITY OF WORKLIFE AND JOB SATISFACTION: THE INTERRELATIONSHIP
Ms. Harmeet Kaur
This paper would highlight the various values, attitudes & beliefs of women regarding job anxiety in their formal work organizations & particularly balancing their work & personal life. The paper will also focus on factors affecting quality of work life and job satisfaction among females in present business scenario. More stress would be given to issues related to women and growth in present business scenario.
QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
Work is an integral part of every day life. If a person is spending 8 hours at work daily, it means he is spending 1/3rd of entire life at work. So the type of work we do, the circumstances, working conditions under which we work and the output which we yield (which is financial as well as self fulfillment or of job security etc.), all this will influence the overall quality of our life. Ultimately, quality of work life is bound to become the quality of life. The term QWL refers to the favourableness or unfavourableness of a total job environment for people.
QWL is the extent to which workers can satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization. Its focus is on the problem of creating a human work environment where employees work cooperatively and contribute to organizational objectives. Beginning in the seventies and during the next two decades a constellation of principles and methods had evolved into a movement called Quality of Work Life (QWL). The quality of work life is a "broad expression covering a vast variety of programmes, techniques, theories, and management styles through which organisations and jobs are designed so as to grant workers more autonomy, responsibility, and authority than is usually done. To simplify somewhat, the general objective is to arrange organisations, management procedures, and jobs for maximum utilisation of individual talents and skills, in order to create more challenging and satisfying work and improve organisation effectiveness" (Jenkins, 1981: p.7). Emergence of concern for QWL can be traced to the revival of interest in the larger area of 'quality of life' in most of the countries of the world. This is so because the two terms are closely related to each other. Life at work is an integral part of total life space (Lawler III et. al, 1980). The QWL may therefore be conceptualised as a sub-set of the quality of life, which is all-inclusive notion of life and living conditions (Mukherjee, 1980; Szalai and Andrews, 1980). To quote Beinum (1974), it is the quality of the content of relationship between human beings and their work. Women today form an important constituent of the labour force in India. As the labour force participation of women increased over the years, especially in professions and services, so has the social scientists' and policy makers' concern with the linkages between QWL and gender issues. Walker's (1975) QWL involved the task, physical work environment and the social environment within the organisation, the administrative system of the establishment and the relationship between life and job. Sayeed and Sinha (1981) focussed upon economic benefits, physical working conditions, mental state, career orientations, advancement, job stress, effect on personal life, union management relations, self respect, etc. The sex composition of the workplace determines the extent and type of 'work life' that women and men experience at work. Gutek (1985) examined socio-sexual interaction in work settings in terms of sex-role spillover, which means the carryover into the workplace of gender based expectations for behaviour. The physical and social environment at the place of work affects the QWL. The effects on women are different in female dominated, male dominated, or in integrated workplaces. Thus not only does the term QWL have different connotations to different persons the factors contributing to QWL are also...
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