Women Empowerment

Topics: History of education, Gender, Gender equality Pages: 22 (7347 words) Published: September 15, 2009
Education: A catalyst for women empowerment

James A Ojob



Education: A catalyst for Women Empowerment in Nigeria
James A Ojobo*

This paper examines the place of education as a catalyst for women empowerment in Nigeria. The paper, using primary and secondary sources of data, has shown that in spite of all the laudable goals and objectives of education, Nigerian women still suffer a lot of constraints and inhibitions which militate against their personal and national development. The paper therefore recommends, among others, the involvement of women in educational policy formulation, extensive enlightenment campaigns, the discarding of stereotypical division of work into men’s and women’s job, and women must organize themselves to meet the challenges of a positive and meaningful role in the struggle for personal and national emancipation, development and progress.

INTRODUCTION In all countries of the world, education is recognized as the cornerstone for sustainable development.. It is a fulcrum around which the quick development of economic, political, sociological and human resources of any country resolves. In fact, the (Nigeria’s) National Policy on Education (1981:6) indicates that education is the greatest investment that the nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, Having recognized education as “an instrument per-excellence for effective national development” as well as “a

dynamic instrument of change,” it is also the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women. Education empowers women by improving their living standard. It is the starting point for women’s advancement in different fields of human endeavor. It is the basic tool that should be given to women in order to fulfill their role as full members of the society (Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies, 1985). In fact, the educational empowerment of Nigerian women is the spring board to every other form of empowerment (political, social, economic etc).


* (Associate Professor): Department of Development Management Institute of Public Management and Development Studies Ethiopian Civil Service College Addis Ababa Ethiopia. E-mail drjaojobo@yahoo.com

Ethiop. J. Educ. & Sc.

vol. 4 No. 1 September, 2008


As citizens of this great nation who form a great percentage of the population, women in Nigeria are expected to contribute their quota to the development of their country. For individual and national development, it is crucial that girls and female adults should acquire or have formal education. Unfortunately, a cursory look at the pattern of women’s involvement in education in Nigeria reveals abysmal low levels. In spite of all the laudable goals and objectives of education, Nigerian women still suffer a lot of constraints and inhibitions which militate against their personal and national development. As much as 61% of the Nigerian Women’s 44 million population (1991 Census) suffer from intellectual poverty (Ojuolape, 2000). Early history of education in Nigeria showed that women lacked easy access to formal education. By 1965, 37.7% of pupils in primary schools were girls while only 9% of under-graduates were female students (Sanni, 2001). The figure rose to 25.5% by 1974 and the students were mainly enrolled in such courses as teaching and the Social Sciences. The available figures indicate that the total full time enrolment of females in the University stood at 50,652 as against male population of 138,334 in 1992 (Federal Office of Statistics, Abuja, 1994). It is also remarkable and significant to note that the early educational curriculum was designed to train women as teachers, nurses, and clerks. They were not in medicine, politics, engineering, law and environmental studies (Achume, 2004). This obviously resulted in shortage of qualified women for top level leadership posts. In...

References: Achunine R.N. (2004) Barriers to Access to Leadership Position in Higher Institutions with special Reference to Nigerian Women, Nigerian Social Scientist Vol. 7 No. 1 March. Adeyeye V.A. (1987) Women and development in Nigeria: An Annotated
James A Ojob
Bibliography and Future Research Direction. A paper presented at the seminar on Women’s Studies: The State of the Art Now in Nigeria. Institute of African Studies, Univeristy of Ibadan. Alao J. & Ajayi, O (1989) “Women in Nigerian Education” in Sesay Amadu & Odebiyi Adetanwa, Eds. Nigerian Women in Society and Development, Alele-Williams E.G. (1986)“Education and the Status of Nigerian Women” Proceedings of Seminar on Nigerian Women and Development in Relation to Challenging Family Structure, University of Ibadan. Education Today (2000) Vol. 8 No. 2 Sept. A Quarterly Journal of the Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja. Enemuo, F.C. (1999) “Gender and Women Empowerment” in Anifowose and Enemuo, FC (eds), Elements of Politics. Lagos: Match House Press Ltd. P. 226-237. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1988) National Policy of Education, Yaba Lagos: NERDC Press. Odili, etal (2003) Gender Equality as Development Framework of Women Integration in Economic Development in African Journal of Social and Policy Studies Vol. 1. No. 2, Development Africa Consortium. Ojuloape, W. (20000) The Role of Women As A Wife. A Mother and A Career Woman: A Paper Presented at the Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre. Sea School, Apapa Lagos. 22 March. Okafor, R.K. (1984) Nigerian Teacher Education: A Search for New Direction, Enugu, Fourth Dimension Publishers Co. Ltd. Okeke, E.A. (1990) Gender Science and Technology: A Challenge for Education. The Bama Methal Lecture. Radcliff College. Onyemulukwe, E.C. (1995) A Hand Book on School Administration and
Ethiop. J. Educ. & Sc. Management: Ibadan University Press Ltd. Sani H. (2001) Women and National Development. The Way Forward. Ibadan. The Bama Methal Lecture. Radcliffee College. Singh et al (1992) Cited in Odili, J.N. Omotor. D.G and Pessu. E.J. (2000) Gender Equality as Development Framework for Women Integration in Economic Development: A Theoretical Perspective. In African Journal of Social and Policy Studies Vol. 1. No. 2, Development Africa Consortium.
vol. 4 No. 1 September, 2008
Sako R. (ed) (1999) Women Empowerment and Advancement Manual, Kaduna: League for Democratic Women (Leads). United Nations Development Programme (1995), Human Development Report New York. OxfordUniversity Press. United Nations (1995): Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. World Bank (2003) African Development Indicators. New York
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Women Empowerment in India Essay
  • Essay on Women Empowerment in Bangladesh
  • An Essay on Women Empowerment
  • Essay about Social empowerment
  • Empowerment Approach Essay
  • Paper Presentation on Women Empowerment and Self Help Groups by Mrs. Rebecca Thomas Lecturer in Commerce Nes Ratnam College, Bhandup(W)....
  • Status of Women in India Essay
  • Empowering Women Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free