Wireless Elecricity

Topics: Wireless energy transfer, Nikola Tesla, Radio Pages: 7 (2096 words) Published: August 22, 2013
Niharika Sharma
Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,

Varun Pachauri
Electronics and Communication Engineering,

Wireless Electricity

Abstract—The present paper intends to link several disciplines in an attempt to describe the concept of wireless electricity. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, unaffordable, expensive, hazardous, unwanted or impossible. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver to make the system economical. Some common forms of wireless electricity transmission methods are Direct Induction followed by resonant magnetic induction, electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or lasers. With this technology we can reduce power losses produced through wired lines. Different concepts and application of wireless power transmission are discussed in this paper. Introduction

The definition of Wireless Power Transmission is: efficient transmission of electric power from one place to another through vacuum or an atmosphere without the use of wire or any other substance. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, published in 1865 mentions electromagnetic waves moving at the speed of light, and the conclusion that light itself was just a wave. In 1886 H. Hertz performed an experiment with pulsed wireless energy transfer. . He produced an apparatus that generated and detected microwaves in the UHF region. Tesla also performed experiments in the field of pulsed wireless energy transfer in 1899. Tesla's Magnifying Transmitter, an early type of Tesla Coil that measured 16 meters in diameter, could able to transmit tens of thousands of watts without wires. In present electricity generation system we waste more than half of its resources. The transmission of power without wires may be one idle alternative for electricity. Future suitable and largest application of the WPT via microwave is a Space Solar Power Satellite. History of Wireless Electricity

In 1864, James Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves by means of mathematical model. In 1884, John Poynting realized that the Poynting Vector would play an important role in quantifying the electromagnetic energy. In 1888, bolstered by Maxwell's theory, Heinrich Hertz first succeeded in showing experimental prove of radio waves by his spark-gap radio transmitter. The prediction and prove of the radio wave in the end of 19th century was start of the wireless power. The Raytheon Company performed the first successful WPT experiment in 1963. In this experiment power was transmitted with a DC-to-DC efficiency of 13%. The Raytheon Company also demonstrated a microwave-powered helicopter in 1964. In 1975, Jet propulsion lab of NASA carried out an experiment and demonstrated the transfer of 30 kW over a distance of 1 mile. This test demonstrated the possibilities of wireless energy outside the laboratory. Rockwell International and David Sarnoff Laboratory operated in 1991 a microwave powered rover at 5.87 GHz. Three kilowatts of energy was transmitted and 500 watts was received. In 1980s, Japanese scientists developed the MPT technologies and research. In 1983 and 1993, Matsumoto’s team carried out the first Microwave Power Transmission experiment in space. The rocket experiment was called Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction experiment i.e. MINIX in 1983 (Fig.1) and International Space Year – Microwave Energy Transmission in Space in 1993, respectively. They focused nonlinear interaction in between intense microwave and plasmas. In this experiment, they used cooker-type 800W-2.47GHz magnetron for microwave transmitter. New wave-wave-particle interaction phenomenon was observed in this experiment. Plasma theory and computer experiments also supported the observations.

Figure 1. MINIX Rocket experiment in 1983
Technologies for Wireless Electricity
The modern ideas are dominated by microwave...

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