What are the potential risks and benefits of migration for European states and societies?
Migration has been in existence since humans appeared in the world. However our forbearers had different purposes for moving from one location to another than the contemporary humans. Their reasons for leaving a territory were changing climate or infertile soil1. The motivational factors for modern migration differ from that. They are in tight correspondence with globalization. Through this phenomenon there is greater global integration among countries, which created a more flexible flow of labour, therefore the opportunities for international migration highly increased and altered in form2. Globalization created a greater income gap between countries, therefore in poor states the situation can be really desperate, especially compared to the condition in the industrial, developed territories. People from impoverished states seek to escape their home and migrate to somewhere else and at the same time as a result of economic changes the labour market requires more forces. Since the development of the European Union, the migration in this continent increased. We can observe migration from Central and Eastern European Countries to the west part of the continent, but there is also migration from high and dry territories from all over the globe to Europe. There is also internal migration, which mostly means movement from the countryside to the town. This essay will explore the benefits and continuing challenges of immigration within Europe, regarding both internal migration as well as the increasing risks of non-European citizens into Europe states and societies.
Presently Europe gives home to 56.1 million migrants and it is predicted that migrant population will increase in the coming decades3. Since the influx of foreign settlers shows an upward trend in Europe, the governments of the different countries had to carefully reconsider their immigration policies. The income of migrants is one of the most contentious issues for the European Commission too. Overall the words – selectivity and restriction – can describe the new paradigm4 contrary with the promotional migration policy in the 1950s and 1960s when the western welfare countries needed extra labour5.
Karl Marx claims that because of capitalism, countries demand high skilled migrants who are helping to flourish the economy and can increase the countries income6. Many developed European countries realized that high skilled labour force influx can increase their countries competitiveness, therefore they try to attract top talents from all over the world. That paradoxical phenomenon is called “brain drain”. This entails the loss of specialist workers from the specific state. On the other hand humanity in general benefits from the international knowledge collaboration. Since immigration policies in Europe are restrictive, migrants with uneducated background from poor countries are less likely to have the opportunity to abandon their home and migrate to a developed country. This contributes to the emergence of illegal immigration which leads to several detrimental consequences. Firstly black workers means tax shortfall to the government and result societal tensions. Secondly it leads to the efflorescence of human trafficking, which is a vast issue. It mostly concerns women who are usually working in the entertainment industry as sex slaves. Traffickers offer a better life to their victims, but it often results in the exploitation of the women. Additionally, those individuals without a visa or correct documentation, are open to increased risk of exploitation as they may not be entitled to the same citizenship rights of protection. The victims fear from that they will be deported back to their home country, which deter them from accessing help for issues such as employment and social welfare. Although the external boarder controls have tighten substantially, illegal...
Bibliography: Adamson, Fiona B. 2006. ‘Crossing Borders: International Migration and National Security’, International Security, 31 (1): 165-199.
CNN Staff, 2013 ’How do illegal immigrants get into the European Union?’ http://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/eu-immigration-infographic/
Lohrmann, Reinhard. 2003. ‘Migrants, Refugees and Insecurity. Current Threats to Peace?’ International Migration, 38 (4): 3-22.
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