DNA is the blueprint for life, it is found in the nucleus of cells on the chromosomes. It is found in many cell organelles, such as plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plants, and mitochondria in both plants and animals. DNA helps us to perform many actions in solving crimes, and also helps us to do scientific studies that were not possible until recently. DNA has a double helix structure, its sugar phosphate backbone, made up of deoxyribose and a phosphate group are held together by hydrogen bonds and base pairs. These bases are adenine and guanine, thymine and cytosine. There are coding and non coding parts of DNA, the non coding part is called an intron, this may not seem to have a function but it helps to keep the structure of the helix by coiling, regulates when genes are expressed and is also used in DNA replication. Non-coding regions of DNA between genes are the satellite DNA, this is a simple base sequence repeated many times. It’s not all non-coding DNA though, the coding parts of the DNA are known as exons.
Science and technology is used for genetic diversity, selective breeding is used especially in farming for livestock. Selective breeding means artificial selection means the controlled breeding of animals or plants by humans so only individuals with specific characteristics can reproduce. Farmers use this technique to get the best quality cattle and produce from the animals they have. To get the best animal possible, for example a milk cow, the farmer will select the best cows from the heard to breed from, these may be the ones with the largest udders or biggest milk yield, he will then breed from this animal, and the F1 offspring will be raised and used for milk. In the F1 generation he will do the same again, selecting the best cows from the generation, the F2 generation will have the most favourable characteristics and will have lost any of the unfavourable characteristics as they have been bread out of