Please print out the following Vocabulary & Concepts for Unit 2. This is to give you a more specific idea of what we will cover during the next 4 (or so) weeks. Keeping a notebook would be a great idea.
This should be in it (right after the General Outline for Unit 2)!!! We will begin Unit 2 in depth this week.
By the end of the Unit, I expect you to have defined all of the vocabulary. You may begin this week if you would like. If you don't have a book, you may, of course, use the internet. You MUST know the vocabulary so you will understand the questions that will be asked of you as the year goes on.
You are to do the following:
For each term provide the definition and an applicable use of/for that term in a real life example Do NOT change the set up of the attachment
Make sure you have double spaced between each
Define each word FIRST & THEN provide the applicable, real life example for the term after the “ex.” AP Human Geography
Unit II. Population - Basic Vocabulary & Concepts
1. Population densities: A measurement of population per unit area or unit volume
ex.- France has a population of 60,561,200, and an area of 551,695 square kilometres, so its population density is about 109.8 persons per square kilometer.
2. Demographic regions: Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in.
ex.- Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth).
3. Population distributions: how population is spread out in an area
ex.- Wealthy people moving to a rural area
4. Natality: the number of live births divided by the population
ex.- 2,342 per month/ 320,000,000
5. Mortality: the number of deaths per thousand people
ex.- 50/1000 deaths
6. Population explosion: the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
ex.- baby boomer generation
7. Thomas Malthus: an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography
ex.- He criticized the Poor Laws, and (alone among important contemporary economists) supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat
8. Demographic transition model: The demographic transition model seeks to explain the transformation of countries from having high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
ex.- Less developed countries began the transition later and are still in the midst of earlier stages of the model.
9. Zero population growth: when the birth rate equals the death rate
ex.- France. It's not increasing but it's not decreasing
10. Age distribution: A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.
ex.- making a product or item intended to be used, bought, or sold to a certain age group.
11. Population pyramid: A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
12. Cohort: a category of people with something in common, usually their age
ex.- College towns with college students
13. Sex ratio: the proportion of males to females in a population
14. Gendered space: areas or regions designed for men or women ex.- Men/Women's restrooms
15. Standard of living: the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier ex.- access of certain goods
16. Infant mortality rate: the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
ex.- infant mortality rates are higher than the U.S. average among infants born to mothers who are adolescents, unmarried, smokers, have lower educational levels, had a fourth or higher order birth, or did not obtain adequate prenatal care
17. Diffusion of fertility control: The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world
ex.- Ex. In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the Middle East it is above 4.
18. Disease diffusion: How disease spreads in a population
ex.- Hierarchical diffusion spreads from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
19. Maladaptation: an adaptation that is less helpful than harmful; It can also signify an adaptation that, whilst reasonable at the time, has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on
ex.- ancient Chinese custom of foot-binding, which prevented the normal growth of the feet of young girls and caused them excruciating pain.
20. Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained
ex.- timber harvesting from native NSW state forests
21. Epidemiological Transition Model: a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growth rates brought about by medical innovation in disease or sickness therapy and treatment, followed by a re-leveling of population growth from subsequent declines in fertility rates.
ex.- the replacement of infectious diseases by chronic diseases over time due to expanded public health and sanitation.
22. Demographic equation: An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration ex.- the population size of ethnic groups
23. Dependency ratio: The number of nonworking members compared to working members for a given population ex.- Retired elderly and young children
24. Rate of natural increase: birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth without considering net migration
ex.- if the birth rate is 14 per 1,000 population, and the death rate is 8 per 1000 population, then the natural increase = 14 - 8 = 6. That is 6/1000, which is equal to 0.6 per cent.
25. Doubling time: The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
ex.- given Canada's net population growth of 0.9% in the year 2006, dividing 70 by 0.9 gives an approximate doubling time of 78 years
26. J-curve: A growth curve that depicts exponential growth
ex.- is seen in economics when a country's trade balance initially worsens following a devaluation or depreciation of its currency.
27. S-curve: A curve that depicts logistic growth
ex.- watches, sailing ships and calculators.
28. Ecumene: The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. ex.- Inhabited areas of the world, like northern Russia
29. Overpopulation: The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
ex.- A city that can't produce as much food as there are people
30. Underpopulation: circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants
ex.- Canada, France, Singapore, Antarctica, and Greenland are underpopulated
31. Carrying capacity: largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
ex.- The plane cannot hold over 100 people
32. Population projection: a statement of a population's future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data
ex.- The world population could exceed 9 Billion by the end of the century
33. Neo-Malthusian: Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations ex.-
34. Demographic momentum: this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model ex.- Going from stage 3 to 4
35. Push-pull factors: Push are reasons for why settlers left homes; pull are reasons they moved to west
ex.- Push- corrupt government, bad living conditions Pull- Freedom, Job opportunities
36. Voluntary: Permanent movement undertaken by choice
37. Forced: human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
ex.- A group of people exiled from a country
38. Transmigration: the relocation of people away from overpopulated core regions to less crowded areas. ex.- Indonesia has a policy of moving people away from Java.
39. Refugee: people who have been dislocated involuntarily from their original place of settlement
ex.- People become refugees for many reasons, including war, oppression, natural disasters, and climate change.
40. Intercontinental: migration flow involving movement across international borders ex.- between two continents
41. Interregional: migration flow within a certain country or state
ex.- People coming from Mexico to the U.S.
42. Rural-urban: migration flow going frow rural to urban areas ex.- a large proportion of settlements classed as ‘rural’ in China and India would fall within the ‘urban’ category if they used the criteria and population thresholds adopted by many other countries
43. Place utility: The process of increasing the attractiveness of a product to a group of consumers by altering its physical location ex.- Walmart has many different kinds of products, from Advil to .Zebra Cakes
44. Activity space: the space within which daily activity occurs
ex.- daily potential path area is used to measure individual access to urban opportunities
45. Personal space: the space a person can reach without travelling ex.- Stay within a foot of me
46. Space-time prism: the set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time
ex.- if a man has to leave home at 11:00 a.m. and return home by 1:00 p.m., and he can travel at a maximum of 50 miles per hour, a point 50 miles away would be unreachable by 11:30 a.m.
47. Gravity model: predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it
ex.- the point at which customers find it preferable, because of distance, time and expense considerations, to travel to one center rather than the other.
48. Distance decay: the various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures and interactions
ex.- imagine putting a magnet on your desk and putting an iron nail on it. The farther you pull the iron nail away from the magnet, the less of a pull effect the magnet has on the nail. It’s the same with distance decay; as the distance between two entities increases, the effect of their interaction decreases.
49. Step migration: migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages. For example, from farm to nearby village to town to city ex.- from farm to a nearby village and later to town or city.
50. Chain migration: the social process by which immigrants from a particular town follow one another to a different city ex.- one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate there
51. Intervening opportunity: an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that helps migration
ex.- A family on the east coast decided to move west but along their journey they found work in central U.S.
52. Cyclic movement: movement that has a closed route repeated annually or seasonally
ex.- nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally 53. Migratory movement: human relocation movement from a source to a destination without a return journey, as opposed to cyclical movement
ex.- locust (Locusta migratoria), which causes wholesale destruction in the East.
54. Periodic movement: a form of migration that involves intermittent but recurrent movement, such as temporary relocation for college or service in the military
ex.- migrant labors and military services
55. Transhumance: moving from one country or region to another ex.- If you revert back and forth often enough it starts to look not much different than a transhumance food production pattern
56. Internal migration: migration flow within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the US
ex.-Moving from Cincinnati to Arizona for health reasons