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AP Human Geo Unit 2 Vocab

By janelangston Nov 13, 2014 1556 Words
Unit 2 Vocabulary & Concepts
Please print out the following Vocabulary & Concepts for Unit 2.  This is to give you a more specific idea of what we will cover during the next 4 (or so) weeks. Keeping a notebook would be a great idea. 

This should be in it (right after the General Outline for Unit 2)!!! We will begin Unit 2 in depth this week.
By the end of the Unit, I expect you to have defined all of the vocabulary.  You may begin this week if you would like.  If you don't have a book, you may, of course, use the internet.  You MUST know the vocabulary so you will understand the questions that will be asked of you as the year goes on.   

You are to do the following:
For each term provide the definition and an applicable use of/for that term in a real life example Do NOT change the set up of the attachment
Make sure you have double spaced between each
Define each word FIRST & THEN provide the applicable, real life example for the term after the “ex.” AP Human Geography
Unit II. Population - Basic Vocabulary & Concepts

Population Terms

1. Population densities: A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

ex.- Divide population 1,000,000 by area 2000 sq km = 500 people per sq km

2. Demographic regions: Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in

ex.- Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth)

3. Population distributions: how population is spread out in an area

ex.- The more wealthy people in Tallahassee live in the Northeastern side

4. Natality: the number of live births divided by the population

ex.- 2,342 per month/320,000,000

5. Mortality: the number of deaths per thousand people

ex.- 289 deaths/1,000

6. Population explosion: the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

ex.- Baby-boomer generation

7. Thomas Malthus: A British economist that concluded that the rate of population was growing at a faster rate than agricultural productivity leading to over population.

ex.- Malthusian Growth Model

8. Demographic transition model: Stage 1=Low growth, Stage 2=High Growth, Stage 3=Moderate Growth, and Stage 4=Low Growth. A country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time


9. Zero population growth: when the birth rate equals the death rate


10. Age distribution: A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid


11. Population pyramid: A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex

ex.- Age-sex

12. Cohort: a category of people with something in common, usually their age

ex.- College towns with college students

13. Sex ratio: the proportion of males to females in a population


14. Gendered space: areas or regions designed for men or women
ex.- Men/Women's restrooms

15. Standard of living: the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier

ex.- People in Germany have a higher standard of living than people in Turkey

16. Infant mortality rate: the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births

ex.- The US’s infant mortality rate is 6.17 deaths/1,000 live births

17. Diffusion of fertility control: The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world

ex.- In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the Middle East it is above 4

18. Disease diffusion: How disease spreads in a population

ex.- Hierarchical diffusion spreads from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.

19. Maladaptation: an adaptation that is less helpful than harmful; It can also signify an adaptation that, whilst reasonable at the time, has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on

ex.- foot-binding

20. Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained

ex.- Solar energy as a sustainable energy source

21. Epidemiological Transition Model: Stage 1=Black Plague, Stage 2=Cholera, Stage 3=Chronic disorders, 4=Longer life expectancies. There is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model

ex.- polio, measles

22. Demographic equation: An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration

ex.- ΔPopulation t-t+n = # Births t-t+n - #Deaths t-t+n

23. Dependency ratio: The number of nonworking members compared to working members for a given population

ex.- Retired elderly and young children

24. Rate of natural increase: birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth without considering net migration

ex.- birth rate – death rate

25. Doubling time: The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

ex.- Afghanistan has a current growth rate of 4.8%, representing a doubling time of approximately 14.5 years (70/4.8=14.5)

26. J-curve: A growth curve that depicts exponential growth


27. S-curve: A curve that depicts logistic growth


28. Ecumene: The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement


29. Overpopulation: The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living

ex.- A city that can't produce as much food as there are people

30. Underpopulation: circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants

ex.- Causes: 1. the unavailability of human resources.2. Increased death rate 3. Increased infant mortality rate 4. Low levels of natural increase 5. Low fertility rate

31. Carrying capacity: largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support


32. Population projection: a statement of a population's future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data

ex.- The world population could exceed 9 Billion by the end of the century

33. Neo-Malthusian: Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations


34. Demographic momentum: this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model

ex.- Going from stage 3 to 4

Migration terms/concepts

35. Push-pull factors: Push are reasons for why settlers left homes; pull are reasons they moved to west

ex.- Push- corrupt government, bad living conditions; Pull- Freedom, Job opportunities

36. Voluntary: Permanent movement undertaken by choice

ex.- Jobs

37. Forced: human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate

ex.- A group of people exiled from a country

38. Transmigration: the relocation of people away from overpopulated core regions to less crowded areas

ex.- Indonesia has a policy of moving people away from Java

39. Refugee: a person who has fled their country because of political persecution and seeks asylum in another country


Migration patterns

40. Intercontinental: migration flow involving movement across international borders


41. Interregional: Permanent movement from one region of a country to another

ex.- Moving from the south to the west coast

42. Rural-urban: migration flow going from rural to urban areas


43. Place utility: adding value to products by having them where people want them

ex.- Chinese food in China Town

44. Activity space: The space within which daily activity occurs

ex.- Home, School, Work, a friend's house, library

45. Personal space: the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy


46. Space-time prism: The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time


47. Gravity model: a predication of the interaction of places, population size, distance between them


48. Distance decay: The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin


49. Step migration: migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages

ex.- From farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

50. Chain migration: migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

ex.- Mexican man moving to Nebraska because that's where his aunt, uncle and cousins settled

51. Intervening opportunity: An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that helps migration


52. Cyclic movement: movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

ex.- Annual trip to L.A. visit family

53. Migratory movement: movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another


54. Periodic movement: Migration involving temporary, recurrent relocation

ex.- military service, college

55. Transhumance: The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns

ex.- Lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer

56. Internal migration: human movement within a nation-state

ex.- going westward and southward in the US

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