Energy is used for many of the bodily functions including the ability to ventilate, respire, move, grow and repair. The first law of thermo dynamics states that energy can be transformed from one state to another but cannot be lost.
Energy comes in many forms, some of these are as follows:-
In accordance with the First Law an example of how energy can transform is when the sun creates light energy which hits green leaves. The chlorophyll inside the leave then absorbs the light and turns it into chemical energy. The plant then uses this energy to carry out photosynthesis.
In humans chemical energy found in food is absorbed by the body’s cells during respiration to produce energy.
The process of respiration
Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
(C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP)
This type of respiration is called aerobic respiration which means respiration with oxygen.
Mitochondria carry out respiration in the cells. This is why muscles have so many mitochondria as they need more energy in order to function.
Respiration comes in two forms – anaerobic and aerobic.
Anaerobic respiration refers to respiration without oxygen. A common example of this is swimming as there is no oxygen in water therefore the individual continues to move and exercise without oxygen. This causes oxygen debt which must be repaid once the anaerobic exercise is complete. This is why athletes who exercise in short bursts breathe heavily after. The equation of anaerobic exercise is:-
Glucose → Lactic acid + Energy
Lactic acid is produced as a waste product of anaerobic respiration and is what causes aches in muscles after exercise.
The Respiratory System
The respiratory system is made up of three major areas. The first is the airway which consists of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveolus. The airways job
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