Travel and Tourism

Topics: Transportation, Train, Mode of transport Pages: 8 (1800 words) Published: April 23, 2013
Mode of transport
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Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a term used to distinguish substantially different ways to perform transport. The most dominant modes of transport are aviation, land transport, which includes rail, road and off-road transport, and ship transport. Other modes also exist, including pipelines, cable transport, and space transport. Human-powered transport and animal-powered transport are sometimes regarded as their own mode, but these normally also fall into the other categories. Each mode of transport has a fundamentally different technological solution, and some require a separate environment. Each mode has its own infrastructure, vehicles, and operations, and often has unique regulations. Each mode also has separate subsystems. A subsystem is a group of many parts that make up one part. All modes of transportation have 6 subsystems. They are: Propulsion, Suspension, Control, Guidance, Structural, and Support. Transport using more than one mode is described as intermodal. Transportation that carries around many people and can be used by the public is known as Mass Transportation. Contents [hide]  * 1 Air * 2 Land * 2.1 Rail * 2.2 Road * 2.3 Water * 3 Other modes * 4 Components of a mode of transport * 5 Worldwide comparison of the most important transport modes * 6 See also * 7 References| [edit] Air

Main article: Aviation

Air France Airbus A318 landing at London Heathrow Airport
A fixed-wing aircraft, typically airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift. A gyroplane is both a fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft. The shape of the wing causes air to travel faster over its upper surface. This reduces air pressure above the wing. It also helps increase the pressure on the wing’s lower surface, pushing it upward and creating lift. Air transport is the second fastest method of transport, after space travel. Commercial jets can reach speeds of up to 955 kilometres per hour (593 mph), while single-engine piston aircraft may reach up to 555 kilometres per hour (345 mph). Aviation is able to quickly transport people and limited amounts of cargo over longer distances, but incur high costs and energy use; for short distances or in inaccessible places, helicopters can be used.[1] WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time.[2] [edit] Land

Main article: Ground transportation
See also: Off-road transport
[edit] Rail
Main article: Rail transport

German ICE 1 on the Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail track, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are anchored perpendicular to railroad train consists of one or more connected vehicles that run on the rails. Propulsion is commonly provided by a locomotive, that hauls a series of unpowered cars, that can carry passengers or freight. The locomotive can be powered by steam, diesel or by electricity supplied by trackside systems. Alternatively, some or all the cars can be powered, known as a multiple unit. Also, a train can be powered by horses, cables, gravity, pneumatics and gas turbines. Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient, though not as efficient as ships. Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting...

References: 1. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 281
3. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 279
6. ^ Stopford, 1997: 4–6
8. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 280
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