CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
ABOUT TOURISM, ITS IMPORTANCE, POLICY AND PLANNING, AND
ITS ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND BUSINESS
DEVELOPMENT IN COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) is the lead agency responsible for the development of standardized tourism definitions. This agency states that tourism is defined by “the set of activities of a person traveling to a place outside his or her usual environment for at least one night, but less than a year, and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited”.
The phrase “usual environment”
excludes trips within the person’s community of residence and routine commuting trips.
phrase “exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited” excludes migration for temporary work paid by an economic agent resident in the place visited. This, however, does not apply to business related travel such as sales calls, installation of equipment, or conventions where the traveler’s employer is located elsewhere than the place visited. Tourism is generally divided into the following categories (source: WTO): 1. Domestic Tourism: residents of a country visiting destinations in the own country 2. Inbound Tourism: visits to a country by non-residents.
3. Outbound Tourism: residents of a country visiting destinations in other countries. 4. Internal Tourism: the combination of domestic tourism and inbound tourism, 5. National Tourism: the combination of domestic and outbound tourism. 6. International Tourism: the combination of inbound and outbound tourism.
The Tourism Industry
Pierce (1996), in his book, viewed tourist destinations from five broad sectors namely attractions, transport, accommodation, supporting facilities and infrastructure. He explains that attractions encourage tourists to visit the location, the transport services enable them to do
so, the accommodation and supporting facilities alike (e.g. shops, banks, restaurants, hotels) cater for the tourist’s well-being during their stay, and the infrastructure assures the essential functioning of all the above sectors.
The tourism industry is often defined as those enterprises and organizations involved in facilitating travel and activity away from one’s usual environment. One challenge in this approach to defining tourism is, of course, the fact that many enterprises which produce commodities for tourists also serve non-tourists (Nelson, 1993) For example, more restaurant meals are consumed by local residents than by tourists. Local attractions may draw local residents as well as tourists.
A conceptual solution to this problem was proposed by the
Canadian National Task Force on Tourism Data (1985).
They proposed dividing tourism
business into two tiers. Tier 1 firms are those that would not exist in the absence of tourism. Examples include hotels, airlines, cruise ships and travel agents. Tier 2 firms are those that would continue to exist in the absence of tourism, but in a diminished form. These businesses include taxis, restaurants, rental car agencies, gift shops, and attractions and events.
The latest trend in the tourism industry is called “ecotourism”, which refers to travel that combines preserving the natural world and sustaining the well-being of the human cultures that inhabit it. (Mowforth and Munt, 2003) In general, ecotourism differs from traditional tourism in two main respects: first, ecotourism openly promotes environmentally friendly travel and seeks to ensure that visitors do not disturb the natural environment of flora and fauna, nor do they leave behind rubbish and hazardous materials, which can disrupt the delicate ecosystem. A second aspect of ecotourism is that it seeks to promote “sustainable” tourism. Tourism that destroys the natural environment, or that leads to the disappearances of local human cultures and values is not...
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