Topics: Tourism, World Tourism Organization, Cultural tourism Pages: 11 (3668 words) Published: February 4, 2013
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes" Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 4.6% when compared to US$ 940 billion in 2010.[2][3] International tourism receipts (the travel item of the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.[2] In 2011, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007.[4] The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. Tourism is important, and in some cases, vital for many countries. It was recognized in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."[1][6] Tourism brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services available, accounting for 30% of the world's exports of services, and 6% of overall exports of goods and services.[2] It also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy, associated with tourism.[3] These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues, and theatres. -------------------------------------------------

Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn'. The suffix –ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behavior or quality', while the suffix, –its denotes 'one that performs a given action'. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist."[7] In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity."[8][9] In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes."[10] In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.[11] In 1994, the United...

References: 1. ^ a b "UNWTO technical manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics". World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 10. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
7. ^ a b Theobald, William F. (1998). Global Tourism (2nd ed.). Oxford [England]: Butterworth–Heinemann. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-7506-4022-7.OCLC 40330075.
8. ^ Hunziker, W; Krapf, K (1942) (in German). Grundriß Der Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre. Zurich: Polygr. Verl. OCLC 180109383.
9. ^ Spode, Hasso (1998). "Geschichte der Tourismuswissenschaft". In Haedrich, Günther (in German). Tourismus-management: Tourismus-marketing Und Fremdenverkehrsplanung. Berlin: [u.a.] de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015185-5. OCLC 243881885.
10. ^ Beaver, Allan (2002). A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism Terminology. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 313. ISBN 0-85199-582-9.OCLC 301675778.
12. ^ "Recommendations on Tourism Statistics". Statistical Papers. M (New York: United Nations) (83): 5. 1994. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
18. ^ a b Singh, L. K. (2008). "Issues in Tourism Industry". Fundamental of Tourism and Travel. Delhi: Isha Books. p. 189. ISBN 978-81-8205-478-3.
22. ^ Lew, Alan A. (2008). "Long Tail Tourism: New geographies for marketing niche tourism products". Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 25 (3-4): 409–419. doi:10.1080/10548400802508515. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
26. ^ Jonathan Mitchel (2009). "Value chain analysis and poverty reduction at scale". Overseas Development Institute.
28. ^ Quinion, Michael (26 November 2005). "Dark Tourism". World Wide Words. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
29. ^ Lennon, J. John; Foley, Malcolm (2000). Dark Tourism. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-5063-6. OCLC 44603703.
30. ^ Cooper, Chris; et al (2005). Tourism: Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-273-68406-X. OCLC 466952897.
31. ^ Shapiro, Kenneth (2007-05-11). "TravelAge West – TravelAge West". Retrieved 2012-10-30.
32. ^ Salkin, Allen (2007-12-16). " 'Tourism of doom ' on rise - The New York Times". Retrieved 2012-10-30.
33. ^ "Long-term Prospects: Tourism 2020 Vision". World Tourism. 2004.
34. ^ "airports & tourists". Global Culture. 2007.
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