To what extent have the innovative technological features of the 1950s-1980s impacted the film industry? IB History Internal Assessment
I. Plan of investigation
Motion picture is a highly popular form of art and entertainment throughout the globe. It has a brief history compared to other forms of art. Beginning in the late 1800s, motion picture reached its peak in the late 1960s. This essay will explore to what extent have the innovative and technological advancements impacted the film industry, covering the topics of color techniques, special effects, and the evolution of lenses. From the late 1950s to early 1980s, the motion picture industry will have seen major changes that would bring the business to its heyday.
II. Summary of Evidence
* Color productions outnumbered black and white (1955).1 * Color replaced black and white completely (1960).
* Multicolor and Cinecolor were failed attempts of color processes. * Developments of Cinemacolor can be tracked by looking back to Kinemacolor * Technicolor would not use their proprietary dye transfer system (1974). * Next month, Belton wrote an article warning that the survival of color films was uncertain. * Technicolor faced competition after Kodak and Anscolor introduced their color negative/positive dye coupler process. * Technicolor’s process was reduced in cost.
* First generation of positive prints was sharp but inferior to DT in color. * In 1980 Kodak upgraded its interpositive and internegative stock.
* Success of 70s films like Star Wars started a drastic change in American filmmaking. * Lucas’ effects wings ILM hold up to contemporary standards. * ILM has been the industry most films have used for special effects. * 1970s cinematic realism wanted a style that seemed to capture immediate events. * Began to use lens flare when extremely direct light caused reflections on the surface of lenses. * Experts recognize that computer algorithms cannot generate a photorealistic special effect alone.
* When Cinerama was launched, it was well received and impossible to overlook. * Twentieth Century Fox believed in technical research and development. * Bragg saw anamorphic lenses as a means for expanding images laterally, not changing the film size. * The split-field diopter lens was introduced as a cinematographic device in 1970. * This lens creates deep focus not possible with the primary lens alone. * The advantage of this lens is that it allows a deeper focus not possible with anamorphic lenses. * The split field diopter also had some disadvantages.
III. Evaluation of Sources
Belton, John. 2000. Cinecolor.
Written in 2000, Belton’s article, Cinecolor, gives the reader a focused look into what this company’s color process was like in the early 20th century and how it has developed during time. It mentions the advantages and disadvantages seen by the company and how the 20th century people saw the upcoming color technology. This document is very valuable for my research. Belton presents valid data that is well supported. This source is particularly well structures and correctly referenced. The author gives specific dates and provides first handed evidence that are original images. The article is reasonably long and contains the necessary information without being too overwhelming. However, the author is only giving us a limited perspective and the information is only between the 1900s and 1960s. Since it is an article, another limitation is that it has an intended audience and there might be some bias by the author. The author mentions famous brands, and might be inclined to commercial motives.
Haines, Richard W. 2000. Technicolor Revival.
Haine’s article, Technicolor Revival, written in 2000, provides a closer look to the history of Technicolor in the color process of film industry and all the obstacles that the...
Cited: * Knight, Arthur. Harmet, A. Richard, ed. Motion Picture. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago. World Book, 1984, p. 702. Print.
* Belton, John. Cinecolor. Film History. 12.4 (2000): 344-57. Print.
* Haines, Richard W. Technicolor Revival. Film History. 12.4 (2000): 410-16. Print.
* Turnock, Julie. The ILM Version: Recent Digital Effect and the Aesthetics of 1970s Cinematography. Film History. 24.2 (2012): 158-68. Print.
* Bragg, Herbert E. The Development of CinemaScope. Film History. 2.4 (1988): 359-71. Print.
* Ramaeker, Paul. Notes on the Split-Field Diopter. Film History. 19.2 (2007): 179-98. Print.
[ 2 ]. Introduced in 1928 but went out of business in 1932. (Belton, Cinecolor)
(1906-1914) Before its demise, Kinemacolor developed an alternate frame color printing process that didn’t need any special filters in front of the projector lens
[ 3 ]. (1906-1914) Before its demise, Kinemacolor developed an alternate frame color printing process that didn’t need any special filters in front of the projector lens. (Hanes, Technicolor Revival)
[ 4 ]
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