The Role of Nutrition in Health and Diet-related Diseases

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Rebekah May Taylor - 20086758
The Role of Nutrition in Health and Diet-related Diseases

Contents

1. Metabolic Processes 3
1.1. Anabolism 3
1.2. Catabolism 4
1.3. Digestion and Absorption 6
1.4. Amino Acid Interconversion
1.5. Respiration 8
1.5.1. Glycolysis 8
1.5.2. Link Reaction 9
1.5.3. Krebs Cycle 9
1.5.4. Electron Transport Chain 10
1.5.5. Anaerobic Respiration 10
2. Health and Diet 12
2.1. Diet 12
2.2. Health 12
2.3. Disorders and deficiencies 12
2.3.1. Hypomagnesaemia 14
2.3.2. Ketosis 15
2.3.3. Selenium Poisoning 16
2.3.4. Excess Molybdenum 17
2.4. Common diseases 18
2.4.1. Heart Disease 18
2.4.2. Kidney Disease 19
2.4.3. Obesity 20
3. Glossary 21
4. References and Further Reading 23

Metabolic Processes

Metabolism is a collection of chemical processes that takes place in the body to convert food into energy (kidshealth.org, N.D.). These processes are included in both digestion and respiration. The breakdown of nutrients after digestion and energy formation using the products of this are the most vital components of metabolism. Bioenergetics is the term used to describe the pathways – both biochemical and metabolic – by which the cell obtains energy (news-medical.net, 2013).

The word ‘metabolism’ derives from the Greek noun ‘metabole’, which means ‘change’ (medicalnewstoday.com, 2013). Currently, this change in terms of metabolism is divided into two categories: anabolism and catabolism.

In order for metabolic pathways to work the body must break down nutrients through digestion. Some of the products of digestion then go on to be involved in respiration. The ultimate product of this is energy, which can be used for a number of things, including DNA



References: BBC, (N.D.). The risks of a poor diet and being overweight. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/features/health/healthyliving/dietrisk.shtml Biology Guide, (2006) Coton, E., Lonvaud-Funel, A., Rollan, G.C., (1992). Histidine carboxylase of Leuconostoc oenos 9204: purification, kinetic properties, cloning and nucleotide sequence of the hdc gene. J Appl Microbiol. 84 (2). 143-151. Hines, R., (2014). Heart Disease In Dogs And Cats. [Online] Available at: http://www.2ndchance.info/heart.htm Huston, L Info Net, (N.D.). Nutritional Deficiencies. [Online] Available at: http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/721/animalDiseases Ismay, J., (2012) Kids Health, (N.D.). Metabolism. [Online] Available at: http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/body_basics/metabolism.html Livestock Biosecurity veterinary officers, (2012) Mandal, A., (2013). What is metabolism? [Online] Available at: http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Metabolism.aspx National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute, (2011) Nordqvist, C., (2013). What is metabolism? How do anabolism and catabolism affect body weight? [Online] Available at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8871.php Oxford Dictionaries, (N.D.) Pushie, M. Jake, Zhang, Limei, Pickering, Ingrid J., and George, Graham N., (2012) The fictile coordination chemistry of cuprous-thiolate sites in copper chaperones, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics, 1817, 938-947 S-cool, (N.D.) Stone, N., (2007). Acetonaemia (Ketosis) of Dairy Cows. [Online] Available at: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/pests-diseases-and-weeds/animal-diseases/beef-and-dairy-cows/acetonaemia-ketosis-of-dairy-cows Summers, A., (2007) Suttle, N. F., (2012). Copper Imbalances in Ruminants and Humans: Unexpected Common Ground, Advances in Nutrition,, 3, 666-674. Taylor, T. (2013). Digestive System. [Online] Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html Themedicalbiochemistrypage.org, (N.D.) Todar, K., (2009). Diversity of Microbial Metabolism. [Online] Available at: http://textbookofbacteriology.net/themicrobialworld/metabolism.html Toole, G., Toole, S., (2008)

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