The Role of Nutrition in Health and Diet-related Diseases

Topics: Metabolism, Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate Pages: 26 (5315 words) Published: April 20, 2014


Rebekah May Taylor - 20086758
The Role of Nutrition in Health and Diet-related Diseases

Contents

1. Metabolic Processes3
1.1. Anabolism3
1.2. Catabolism4
1.3. Digestion and Absorption6
1.4. Amino Acid Interconversion
1.5. Respiration8
1.5.1. Glycolysis8
1.5.2. Link Reaction9
1.5.3. Krebs Cycle9
1.5.4. Electron Transport Chain10
1.5.5. Anaerobic Respiration10
2. Health and Diet12
2.1. Diet12
2.2. Health12
2.3. Disorders and deficiencies12
2.3.1. Hypomagnesaemia14
2.3.2. Ketosis15
2.3.3. Selenium Poisoning16
2.3.4. Excess Molybdenum17
2.4. Common diseases18
2.4.1. Heart Disease18
2.4.2. Kidney Disease19
2.4.3. Obesity20
3. Glossary21
4. References and Further Reading23

Metabolic Processes

Metabolism is a collection of chemical processes that takes place in the body to convert food into energy (kidshealth.org, N.D.). These processes are included in both digestion and respiration. The breakdown of nutrients after digestion and energy formation using the products of this are the most vital components of metabolism. Bioenergetics is the term used to describe the pathways – both biochemical and metabolic – by which the cell obtains energy (news-medical.net, 2013).

The word ‘metabolism’ derives from the Greek noun ‘metabole’, which means ‘change’ (medicalnewstoday.com, 2013). Currently, this change in terms of metabolism is divided into two categories: anabolism and catabolism.

In order for metabolic pathways to work the body must break down nutrients through digestion. Some of the products of digestion then go on to be involved in respiration. The ultimate product of this is energy, which can be used for a number of things, including DNA synthesis and muscle movement (news-medical.net, 2013).

In this section we will explore anabolism and catabolism as well as the processes of digestion and respiration and their function in metabolism.

ANABOLISM

In simplistic terms, anabolism is the building up of things (medicalnewstoday.com, 2013). To be more specific, it is the process by which living organisms synthesize complex molecules from simpler components (wisegeek.com, N.D.). To do this requires energy and the outcome is growth of new cells (medicalnewstoday.com, 2013). Examples of this growth include mineralization of bone and increased muscle mass. (ibid)

Anabolism uses the products of catabolism in order to take place.

Figure 1 – The process anabolism

Anabolism receives its energy from the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), as shown in figure 1, through a hydrolysis reaction (Toole, G., Toole, S., 2008): ATP + H2O ADP + Pi + energy

Here the Pi represents an inorganic phosphate. ATP has three phosphates and it is the removal of this phosphate that converts it to ADP and releases the energy.

CATABOLISM

Catabolism is the opposite of anabolism. Again in simple terms, this is the breaking down of things (medicalnewstoday.com, 2013). Knowing that catabolism is the opposite of anabolism, we can deduct that this is the breakdown of complex molecules or polymers into simple ones or monomers (or smaller polymers) (medicalnewstoday.com, 2013). This process is used to provide energy as well as creating components that can be used to build up other complex compounds within the body (wisegeek.com, N.D.).

It is in this way that catabolism and anabolism are linked, as seen in figure 2 below.

Figure 2 – The link between catabolism and anabolism in metabolism.

Catabolism takes energy sources and breaks them down into building blocks for biosynthesis, heat, and utilizable energy. This utilizable energy is what goes on to produce ATP...


References: BBC, (N.D.). The risks of a poor diet and being overweight. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/features/health/healthyliving/dietrisk.shtml
Biology Guide, (2006)
Coton, E., Lonvaud-Funel, A., Rollan, G.C., (1992). Histidine carboxylase of Leuconostoc oenos 9204: purification, kinetic properties, cloning and nucleotide sequence of the hdc gene. J Appl Microbiol. 84 (2). 143-151.
Hines, R., (2014). Heart Disease In Dogs And Cats. [Online] Available at: http://www.2ndchance.info/heart.htm
Huston, L
Info Net, (N.D.). Nutritional Deficiencies. [Online] Available at: http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/721/animalDiseases
Ismay, J., (2012)
Kids Health, (N.D.). Metabolism. [Online] Available at: http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/body_basics/metabolism.html
Livestock Biosecurity veterinary officers, (2012)
Mandal, A., (2013). What is metabolism? [Online] Available at: http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Metabolism.aspx
National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute, (2011)
Nordqvist, C., (2013). What is metabolism? How do anabolism and catabolism affect body weight? [Online] Available at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8871.php
Oxford Dictionaries, (N.D.)
Pushie, M. Jake, Zhang, Limei, Pickering, Ingrid J., and George, Graham N., (2012) The fictile coordination chemistry of cuprous-thiolate sites in copper chaperones, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics, 1817, 938-947
S-cool, (N.D.)
Stone, N., (2007). Acetonaemia (Ketosis) of Dairy Cows. [Online] Available at: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/pests-diseases-and-weeds/animal-diseases/beef-and-dairy-cows/acetonaemia-ketosis-of-dairy-cows
Summers, A., (2007)
Suttle, N. F., (2012). Copper Imbalances in Ruminants and Humans: Unexpected Common Ground, Advances in Nutrition,, 3, 666-674.
Taylor, T. (2013). Digestive System. [Online] Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html
Themedicalbiochemistrypage.org, (N.D.)
Todar, K., (2009). Diversity of Microbial Metabolism. [Online] Available at: http://textbookofbacteriology.net/themicrobialworld/metabolism.html
Toole, G., Toole, S., (2008)
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Health: Nutrition and Balanced Diet Essay
  • Nutrition Diet Analysis Essay
  • Essay about nutrition
  • Essay on nutrition and health
  • health and disease Essay
  • Essay on Role of Free Radicals in Health and Diseases
  • nutrition Essay
  • nutrition Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free