AP Biology Midterm Study Guide

Topics: DNA, DNA replication, Protein Pages: 21 (6838 words) Published: March 30, 2015
INTRODUCTION
Levels of organization (cell to biosphere) and characteristics of life

Levels: Cells->tissue ->organs & organ systems->organisms->populations->communities->ecosystems-> biosphere

Characteristics of life:
Cell and Organization: Each cell can only do the job it is tasked with. Example: brain cells Energy Use and Metabolism: Energy is needed many organisms. Energy is utilized in chemical reactions Response to Environmental Changes: responds to stimuli

Regulation and Homeostasis: ex: Internal regulation of our body to maintain a stable environment Growth and Development: All living things get larger and more complex throughout the organism’s life Reproduction: reproduce

Biological Evolution: The change over time of living organisms

3 Domains and major characteristics and examples (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya)

Bacteria: Most are unicellular and microscopic. Prokaryotic. Example: Salmonella, peptidoglycan makes up a cell wall type thing Archaea: Most are unicellular and microscopic. Prokaryotic. Example: ancient bacteria, live in harsh enviorments, Eukarya: Contain a nucleus and organelles. Eukaryotic. Example: Plants, animals, fungi and all other forms of life -All have cells, dna, rna, membrane, ribosomes

Producer to Tertiary Consumer in an energy pyramid (trophic levels)

-Trophic structure / levels~ feeding relationships in an ecosystem -Primary producers~ the trophic level that supports all others; autotrophs -Primary consumers~ herbivores
-Secondary and tertiary consumers~ carnivores
- Tertiary Consumers: Carnivores that eat other carnivores
-Detrivores/detritus~ special consumers that derive nutrition from non-living organic matter

CHEMISTRY

BIOCHEMISTRY

Biological Macromolecule
Elements it Contains
Monomer Subunit
Carbohydrates
Ex. Sugars, starch, cellulose
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Monomer- Monosaccharide

Lipids
ex. Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids and cholesterol
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
one glycerol & fatty acids
Nucleic Acids
Ex.Dna&Rna
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogenous bases and phosphorus
Nucleotide
Protein
ex. Enzymes, skin and hair
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen &sulfer
Amino Acids
What are steroids? Structure? Function? Examples?
Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings, often sex hormones act or regulate immune response Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen
Function is essentially cell communication

Protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary)

The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids, is like the order of letters in a long word, determined by inherited genetic information

Secondary structure, found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain, result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone, typically are a coil called an a helix and a folded structure called a b pleated sheet

Tertiary structure is determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups), interactions include hydrogen bonds; ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions, Strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges may reinforce the protein’s structure

Quaternary structure results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains making a macromolecule, Collagen is a fibrous protein consisting of three polypeptides coiled like a rope, Hemoglobin is a globular protein consisting of four polypeptides: two alpha and two beta chains. Two or more polypeptides come together

THE CELL/TRANSPORT
Endocytosis: cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane -Phagocytosis: A cell engulfs a particle in a vacuole
-Pinocytosis: Molecules are taken up when extracellular fluid is “gulped” into tiny vesicles -Receptor-Meditated Endocytosis: binding of ligands to receptors triggers vesicle formation.

Compound light microscope...
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