AP Biology Midterm Study Guide

Powerful Essays
Topics: DNA, DNA replication
INTRODUCTION
Levels of organization (cell to biosphere) and characteristics of life

Levels: Cells->tissue ->organs & organ systems->organisms->populations->communities->ecosystems-> biosphere

Characteristics of life:
Cell and Organization: Each cell can only do the job it is tasked with. Example: brain cells
Energy Use and Metabolism: Energy is needed many organisms. Energy is utilized in chemical reactions
Response to Environmental Changes: responds to stimuli
Regulation and Homeostasis: ex: Internal regulation of our body to maintain a stable environment
Growth and Development: All living things get larger and more complex throughout the organism’s life
Reproduction: reproduce
Biological Evolution: The change over time of living organisms

3 Domains and major characteristics and examples (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya)

Bacteria: Most are unicellular and microscopic. Prokaryotic. Example: Salmonella, peptidoglycan makes up a cell wall type thing
Archaea: Most are unicellular and microscopic. Prokaryotic. Example: ancient bacteria, live in harsh enviorments,
Eukarya: Contain a nucleus and organelles. Eukaryotic. Example: Plants, animals, fungi and all other forms of life
-All have cells, dna, rna, membrane, ribosomes

Producer to Tertiary Consumer in an energy pyramid (trophic levels)

-Trophic structure / levels~ feeding relationships in an ecosystem
-Primary producers~ the trophic level that supports all others; autotrophs
-Primary consumers~ herbivores
-Secondary and tertiary consumers~ carnivores
- Tertiary Consumers: Carnivores that eat other carnivores
-Detrivores/detritus~ special consumers that derive nutrition from non-living organic matter

CHEMISTRY

BIOCHEMISTRY Biological Macromolecule
Elements it Contains
Monomer Subunit
Carbohydrates
Ex. Sugars, starch, cellulose
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Monomer- Monosaccharide

Lipids ex. Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids and cholesterol
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen one glycerol & fatty acids
Nucleic Acids

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