The Impact of Dollarization on the Zimbabwe Economy

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1. INTRODUCTION

The Zimbabwean Economy went through a decade of Economic meltdown and hyperinflation which left the Zimbabwean authorities with no option but to dollarize the Economy. Dollarization started off as unofficial Dollarization until a time government decided to make it official and save the country from imminent collapse. Dollarization brought about some sanity in the economy and some relief of economic recovery to Zimbabwe as a whole. Some FDI started to trickle in but not withstanding the effects of dollarization such as liquidity problems and loss of tight monetary control of the financial sector by the RBZ.
This paper Explores the Definition of Dollarization, the Zimbabwean situation in depth, the relief and problems of dollarization and finally the way forward on Dollarization from this juncture

2. DOLLARIZATION
Definition of Dollarization
Dollarization occurs when a country uses foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency as a medium of exchange within the domestic economy.
This term may not only applied to usage of the US dollar, but generally to the use of any foreign currency as the national currency. There are two common indicators of dollarization. * The Amount of foreign currency deposits in the domestic banking system. * The Amount of all foreign currency deposits held by domestic residents at home and abroad.

Types of Dollarization
They are 2 main Types of Dollarization. * Unofficial dollarization.
This happens when residents choose to hold a significant share of their financial assets denominated in foreign currency although the foreign currency lacks the legal tender status. They hold deposits in the foreign currency because of a bad track record of the local currency, or as a hedge against inflation of the local currency. * Official dollarization.
This happens when a country adopts a foreign currency as its sole legal tender, and ceases to issue the domestic currency. The



References: 1. Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe website. 2. April 25, 2012, on page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: Using U.S. Dollars, Zimbabwe Finds a Problem: No Change 3. World Economic Forum, 2009, “Global Competitiveness Report 2009–10,” WEF 4. Flamini, Valentina, Calvin A. McDonald, and Liliana Schumacher, 2009, “The Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Working Papers No. 09/15 (Washington: International Monetary Fund) 5. Class notes Professor Hawkins (2013) 6. Zimbabwe 's Economic Policies, 1980-2002 by Dr. Owen Sichone. Development Policy Management Forum Bulletin: Volume X, Number 2, April 2003. 2002. http://www.dpmf.org/Publications/Bulletins/bulletin-apr-03/zimbabwe-economic-policy-sichone.html. 7. The Politics of Economic Policy-Making in Zimbabwe by Carolyn Jenkins. The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4. (Dec., 1997), pp. 575-602. 8. On the Benefits of Dollarization when Stabilization Policy is not Credible and Financial Markets are Imperfect Enrique G. Mendoza NBER Working Paper No. 7824 Issued in August 2000 NBER Program 9. Zimbabwe: Challenges and Policy Options after Hyperinflation. Author/Editor Kramarenko, V. ; Engstrom, Lars Holger ; Verdier, Geneviève ; Fernandez, Gilda ; Oppers, Stefan E. ; Hughes, Richard ; McHugh, James ; Coats, Warren L. Publication Date: June 23, 2010

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