Since the appearance of the EURO () in the international trading system, the American dollar ($) has lost its domination and role in the financial world. Consequently, there is not only a great disparity in the exchange rate between the two currencies in favor of the EURO, but a growing problem in the US economy as well. Table 1, which can be found in Appendix B, shows the course and relationship of the exchange rates of the two currencies from 1999 until now. The scope of this paper is to approach as best as possible the various reasons for this disparity and try to predict the future of the two currencies based on accurate and up-to-date information. At this point, the authors would like to make clear that they do not intend to criticize or praise any political or financial behaviors, but to present the facts objectively.
Short History of $
The appearance of the first American dollar goes back to August of 1786 when the Congress approved it as the official American unit of account for the United States. Until 1874 the value of the United States dollar was tied to and backed up by silver, gold, or both. In Table 2, which can be found in Appendix B, we can see the relation of the gold and dollar from 1954 up to 2003. Another term closely associated with the dollar is the so called petrodollar. This is a term that was given by Ibrahim Oweiss, a professor of economics at Georgetown University, in 1973 to describe the dominance of the American currency over the international oil market. The same conclusion is coming out from Chart 1, where we can see that in 1973 the gold value of the American dollar fell almost nine times, because it was no more connected with the gold standards.
Short History of
As of January 1st 1999, banks, foreign exchange dealers, big firms and stock markets, celebrated the first appearance and circulation of a new electronic currency called EURO. This was the outcome of the agreement between Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Two years passed until the EURO became a legal tender. From this point onwards, the EURO secured the preference of many investors, who previously supported the American dollar. Until now, Eurozone, counts 13 members including Greece and Slovenia, apart from the 11 previous countries, and in the next months will add two new members in its family. This shows that more and more countries believe in a united monetary system, which will provide security and stability in their economies, through its steadiness. An example of the rapid growth and usage of the EURO is that, as of December 2006, more than 610 billion euros are in circulation. This is equivalent to US $802 billion at the exchange rates at the time. In other words, the euro surpasses the US dollar in terms of combined value of cash in circulation. This issue has led to a shadow war between the EURO and the American dollar for the world's financial dominance.
The Shadow War
The undeclared war between the two currencies started almost immediately after the launching of the new electronic monetary system. Although, at the beginning, the EURO was very weak and it did not pose a threat for the dominance of the American dollar, analysts had expressed their agony and thoughts about the future of the American currency. Their instinct was not wrong, since year by year the EURO was strengthening against all currencies and nowadays has the highest exchange rate of all years against the dollar. On the other hand, most probably, the FED and the US governments underestimated the bold movement of some European countries, and taking into consideration that for the first three years the Euro was loosing ground, they did not create safeguards for the case of the Euros future recover. As a result, we are facing the current issue of the great disparity between the two currencies. There are several reasons that have led to...
Bibliography: Ayilavarapu, Dinkar. "A Casualty of War: The Dollar." Asia Times 8 Apr. 2003 http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations/sovereign/dollar/2003/0408casualty.htm.
Bergsten, Fred C. "Peterson Institute for International Economies the Dollar and the Euro." Peterson Institute Jul.-Aug. 1997 http://www.iie.com/publications/print.cfm=pub&research10=R82.
Bivens, L. Josh, "The benefits of the dollar 's decline", 24 Jul. 2003
Brusca Robert. "U. S. Export and Import Prices: No Excitement but uneven Trends." 17 Apr. 2007
Dollar loses ground against Euro. 25 Nov. 2006 http://www.informationliberation.com/index.php?id=18170
Dollar vs Euro—Weapons of mass destruction
Dr. Barton, Jr., Chairman, Trader 's U. U. S. Dollar: Strong or Weak? "The U.S. Dollar: Strong or Weak? (The Dollar Id Dead. Long Live the Dollar!)" 16 Nov. 2005: 162
Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, Advisory Panelist, Investment U. Dollar vs Euro: More Collapse or a Rise on the Way? "Dollar vs Euro: More Collapse or a Rise on the Way? (The Dollar Giga-Bubble.)" 14 Apr. 2005: 428
Gorman, Tom, "The Complete Idiot 's Guide to Economics", 2003
Grabbe, J. Orlin, "History of the Euro", 1 Feb. 1997
Lien, Kathy, and Boris Schlossberg. "Euro Hits All Time High- Is 1.40 the Next Stop?"11 Jul. 2007 http://www.dailyfox.com/story/topheadline/Euro_Hits_All_Time_High_1184162216245.html.
Rajaram, N.S., "The shadow war: euro vs. dollar", The Hindu, 22 Apr. 2003
Sultemeier, E. Keith, "U.S. dollar under siege has pros and cons for economy", San Antonio Business Journal, 13 Jul. 2007
U. S. Dollar Forecast: "Still Room for a 20% Rise in the Buck." U. S. Dollar Forecast. 18 Apr. 2005: 429
Xu, Yan. "The dollar fell sharply against the euro and sterling." 20 Jun. 2007 http://www.fxstreet.com/fundamental/market-view/european-us-summary/2007-06-29.html
Please join StudyMode to read the full document