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The Effects of Telecommuting in the Careers of Professionals

By klrogacion Apr 14, 2011 5319 Words
Chapter 1
The Problem and Its Background
The internet has made it possible for anyone to communicate with other people across the globe. Email has replaced the traditional snail mail and in just one click of the mouse, messages are sent instantaneously. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) has replaced phone-to-phone conversations in which a caller has to call the operator to make a long distance or overseas call.

With the growing use of the internet, businesses put up their websites in order to reach out to a global market. With that trend, other businesses in different industries started catching up by having online presence.

Almost everything is done online nowadays, i.e. online banking, online shopping, making hotel reservations, and booking for flights.
With that pattern, it is not impossible for employees to be doing their work from the comforts of their own homes.
In 1973, Jack Nilles coined the terms “telework” and “telecommuting.” He was a die-hard telecommuter himself for decades. He is the cofounder and president of JALA International, which helps organizations develop their telecommuting programs. Telecommuting, as defined by Wikipedia, is a work arrangement in which employees enjoy flexibility in working location and hours. With the advancement of technology, employees are able to maximize their productivity by replacing the daily commute to a central place of work with telecommunication links.

The internet makes it possible for employees to communicate with their colleagues via different mediums such as email, conferencing through Skype and instant messaging. Information technology professionals whose work is results oriented can just turn in to their superiors their output such as program code, compiled programs, etc. Theoretical Framework

The concept of telecommuting has been around since the 1970s. And it is going to be a mainstay in Corporate America but it doesn’t mean everyone will be working at home all the time. But as technologies improve, other countries may adapt to this concept of telecommuting.

Telecommuting is known to have a lot of advantages for both the employees and the employers. With the boom of telecommuting in the United States, the Philippines is slowly adopting the new way to work. Call centers therefore have started to offer work from home opportunities for call center agents. And businesses that need 24 x 7 support also offer telecommuting perks to employees who need to do rotational on-call support.

With this, employees nowadays either work from home full-time or part-time.
As this becomes the new way to work, the manager’s new challenge is evaluating the performance of their employees that they need to manage remotely in order to manage career expectations.
The researcher considered working on this study to find out if Filipinos will be able to adapt to telecommuting and if it will be beneficial in their professional lives.

Conceptual Framework


Effects of

Figure 1. Conceptual paradigm showing the effects of telecommuting on the respondents as revealed by the Telecommuting Survey

The main concern of this study is to explore the effects of telecommuting in the careers of professionals. The conceptual paradigm shows the process on how the researcher measured the effects of telecommuting. From the results of the survey, the researcher will be able to gauge the job satisfaction and job performance of the respondents which are the dependent variables.

Statement of the Problem
This study “The Effects of Telecommuting in the Careers of Professionals” was conducted to answer the following questions: 1. What are the greatest benefits respondents have realized from telecommuting? 2. How will telecommuting affect respondents professionally? 3. What are the additional key benefits respondents have experienced from telecommuting? 4. What are some of the drawbacks/problems/obstacles respondents have experienced from telecommuting?

Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to determine the effects of telecommuting in the careers of professionals by: 1. Identifying the impacts of working from home.
2. Identifying if telecommuting will be beneficial in the long run. 3. Identifying the issues and/or concerns that come with telecommuting. Significance of the Study
The study focused on determining the effects of telecommuting. The results of the study will be beneficial to the following: Respondents. The respondents will have an awareness of their job satisfaction and perceived job performance. Employers. The result of the study will give employers an idea in drafting their telecommuting guidelines and policies and be able to conduct performance appraisals more effectively. Scope and Limitation

The scope of the project is limited to telecommuters who are working from home part time and full time. Definition of Terms
TelecommutingIt is a work arrangement in which employees enjoy flexibility in working location and hours. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP)It is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over internet protocol networks such as the internet or other packet-switched networks. Other synonymous terms are internet telephony, IP telephony and voice over broadband. Virtual Private NetworkIt encapsulates data transfers between two or more networked devices not on the same private network so as to keep the transferred data private from other devices on one or more intervening local or wide area networks.

Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
History of Telecommuting
Telecommuting began in 1973 when Jack Nilles coined the term telecommuting in response to the realization that the world’s fossil-fuels were hardly inexhaustible and energy conservation was now a necessary forethought. Alternative methods for conducting business that did not require the expense of the daily commutes were discovered by commuters. The information age brought new ways to remotely commute and work.

Personal computers and workstations became the work tool. Many companies have turned to telecommuting in order to comply with the mandate of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The telecommuting imperative of the U.S. government began as a solution to traffic congestion. The U.S. government wanted the companies to reduce the employees’ commute time by 25% through car pooling, public transportation incentives, condensed work weeks, or the most practical, cost-effective and popular option, telecommuting.

The Congress enacted a law requiring federal agencies to set up policies for implementing telecommuting and to dramatically increase the number of off-site workers in October 2000. Telecommuting became more crucial after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks underscored the need for continuity plans for emergencies.

Telecommuting has become more cost-effective because of cheaper telecommunications and information technology – particularly the broadband connections that support high-speed Internet service.
The number of telecommuters continues to rise as there are numerous factors leading this growth, such as changes in: technology, sociological trends, dual wage earner and single parent families, pressures to balance work and family life, worker values, pressures for environmental conservation, and pressures for organizations to be more competitive, reduce costs, and improve their ability to recruit and retain workers. Types of Telecommuting

There are different types of telecommuting. It can be rendered full-time or part-time, according to a fixed schedule or as needed. It includes the following: * Working at home. This is the most popular form of telecommuting. * Working in a satellite office or telework center. A telework center can be operated for a single employer or for multiple employers. The telework centers are separate from the company’s main offices and are located usually in a suburb near employees’ homes. * Hoteling. It allows employees to share unassigned work space by signing up for it in advance, much as they’d make hotel reservations. It is also known as desk sharing. The concept is reducing office space and implementing a reservation system for a block of workstations. * Working on the road.

* Working from the offices of a client.
* Any combination of the above.

Benefits of Telecommuting
Increased employee satisfaction. It was found out by Coveyduck that telecommuters derived relatively high job satisfaction, work autonomy, commitment to the organization and feelings support by the organization. Researchers such as Coveyduck and McCloskey have claimed that teleworking enhances employee autonomy by giving them greater control over their work situation.

Increases organizational commitment. The findings were:
* “Tucker (1997) reported that teleworkers had high levels of job satisfaction but relatively neutral levels of commitment.” * “Ellison (1999) explained that when an organization assists employees in solving child care and other family concerns, organizational commitment may be increased.” * “Hill (1995) found that productivity, morale, and organizational commitment were perceived to have been positively influenced by telework.” Telecommuting can save an organization money. Companies such as AT&T and IBM have reported huge savings in real estate expenses as a result of telecommuting. According to the International Telework Assocation & Council (1999), telecommuting employees can save their employers $10,006 each in job retention costs and reduced absenteeism. Sun Microsystems saved more than $250 million on real estate over a four-year period and cut its information technology and power consumption costs by another $24 million a year. Improved employee morale. Telecommuters are often happier employees because telecommuting shows that the employer trusts them that they’ll spend time in the home office wisely. Telecommuting eliminates the hassle of commuting, increases available time for work, cuts commuting costs, and potentially lowers stress. Increased employee productivity. Employees have more time to work since they don’t have to commute. Working time is generally quality time since there are fewer distractions and interruptions. Reduced stress levels often means employees stay highly motivated. Lower absenteeism. People who are almost over an illness or injury can begin to work at home rather than just take another sick day. Reduced employee turnover. Recruitment is expensive. Telecommuting increases the employer’s ability to retain experienced employees and reduces the recruitment costs. Expanded hiring pool. Telecommuting may enable a company to recruit or retain an employee who is otherwise unavailable because of geographical restraints or time limitations. Relocation expenses can then be reduced. Hiring qualified workers with disabilities is possible. Environmental benefits. Telecommuting benefits the environment by decreasing automobile commuting and emissions. Better air helps improve people’s health. Tax benefits. Some localities give tax incentives to reduce traffic and/or smog through telecommuting.

Challenges of Telecommuting
Loss of contact among employees. Testing out ideas and brainstorming with colleagues over the phone from a home office is harder. Telecommuters need to be aware that they will be on their own and that they must take steps to ensure that they interact effectively with co-workers.

Cost of providing office equipment. There are companies who buy computers and pay for broadband Internet connections who work from home.
Management issues. It is tough to adequately manage employees who are out of sight, therefore, managers should be very careful in deciding which employees may telecommute and how to handle long-distance employees. The key management issues are: * Wage and hour regulations. There should be a system in place to ensure that telecommuters keep accurate time records and perform overtime work only when their managers approve it in advance. * Workers’ comp law emphasizes employers that they have systems in place to ensure that work-related injuries and illnesses are reported in a timely fashion. * Employers should ensure that confidential company information remain secure. * Employers should ensure that workplace programs and policies are administered fairly. Employers should clarify with their employees that their prospects for advancement will be limited and that they should treat telecommuters the same as other employees in performance appraisals. Finding the right work-life balance. The boundary between work and home is a pressing issue for both organization and employees. Telecommuting may reduce work-family conflicts by offering job autonomy and scheduling flexibility. However, there are some cases when remote workers often found themselves working longer hours and struggling to make time for their personal life. Mixing household chores during working hours is not possible but families of remote employees have the expectation that the person staying at home will also manage household chores which often leads to disagreements and family distress. Workplace isolation. Employees have lower job satisfaction, lower organizational commitment and increased turnover when they feel isolated. Telecommuters develop isolation perceptions when they sense an absence of support from co-workers and managers. Telecommuters who experienced isolation missed the social environment of a traditional workplace, coffee breaks and opportunities to build relationships. And these are common for employees who live alone, have recently relocated or are newcomers to the organization. Compensating for the lack of face-to-face communication. Electronic communication makes it more difficult for remote employees to develop personal relationships and trust. It generally lacks the richness and social presence associated with face-to-face communication. Compensating for the lack of visibility. Telecommuters feel that the lack of visibility limits their contributions to the company’s success and their career advancement opportunities. They felt that they had to work harder than traditional employees to be recognized or promoted.

Telecommuting Jobs
Usually, information-based jobs are the jobs that require minimum amount of required face-to-face contact. The jobs that can be taken home or can be accessed via phone line or internet connection are: Accounting

Billing Clerk
Clerical Positions
Company Representatives
Computer Aided Design
Computer Programming
Credit Collectors
Customer Service Positions
Database Administrators
Data Entry
Data Processing
Desktop Publishers
Email Processors
General Office Workers
Graphic Artists
Lead Generators
Legal & Medical Transcribers
Medical Billing
Medical Transcription
Office Support
Program Designers
Sales Reps (All Kinds)
Secretarial Positions
Software Developers
Technical Writers
Translators (foreign language)
Web Designers
Word Processing
The Future of Telecommuting
Telecommuting is estimated to grow at an annual rate of 20% through the year 2010. Telecommuters will continue to show high productivity – ranging from 15% to 25% higher than what they did at the office.

Chapter 3
Research Methodology
This chapter presents the description of the research method to be used, a description of the respondents, the instruments to be used, the procedures and statistical treatment utilized in analyzing the data that will be gathered. Research Design

The research design used in this study is the descriptive normative survey. The descriptive method involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of the prevailing conditions of a certain group. It will include the following processes: classification and enumeration of collated data. Population of the Study

The sampling design used in the study is purposive sampling. This sampling involves the selection of key informants based on a predetermined set of criteria.
For this study, the respondents are employees who telecommute either full-time or part-time. Data Gathering Tool
The data gathering tool used in this study is the survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire is a means of eliciting the feelings, beliefs, experiences, or attitudes of some sample of individuals. The design of the survey questionnaire is made up of fixed alternative and open-ended questions.

The survey will assess the employees’ feelings and perceived job performance in telecommuting. Statistical Treatment of Data
After the survey questionnaires are answered, the profile of the respondents will be taken according to age, gender, educational background, civil status and the number of years telecommuting. To be able to get a description of the profile of the respondents, the data coming from each item mentioned above will be placed in tabular form with the indicated percentage as well as the frequency.

The formula that will be used in the study is:
Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire. n
% = --------- x 100
n= number of responses
N= total number of respondents

Chapter 4
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
This chapter discusses the data analysis and findings from the 10 questionnaires completed by part-time and full-time telecommuters. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of telecommuting in the careers of professionals. The findings of the study are organized as follows: * Personal data of the telecommuters,

* About the job of the telecommuters, and
* Job performance.
Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Personal Data
This section of the questionnaire covered the respondents’ age, gender, civil status, highest school qualification and the line of work. 4.1.1 The respondents were asked their dates of birth. Table 4.1.1 depicts the respondents’ ages. Table 4.1 Respondents’ ages

Age| Frequency| Percentage|
26| 1| 10|
29| 1| 10|
31| 3| 30|
33| 2| 20|
34| 1| 10|
35| 1| 10|
Unidentified| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

The telecommuters’ ages range from 26 to 35, with majority as being 31 years old as 3 (30%). This shows that most telecommuters have gained extensive experience in their respective fields which garners trust from their employers. 4.1.2. Respondents’ Gender

Table 4.2 Gender of employees / telecommuters
Sex| Frequency| Percentage|
Female| 7| 70|
Male| 3| 30|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Of the ten respondents, three are male and seven are female. This means that females are more likely to accept telecommuting jobs in order to take care of other needs such as tending to their children and looking after other family members. 4.1.3. Respondents’ civil status

Table 4.3 Civil status
Civil Status| Frequency| Percentage|
Single| 5| 50|
Married| 4| 40|
Annulled| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Five respondents are single people. This means that telecommuting is attractive not only to married and annulled people with children but to single people as well. 4.1.4. Respondents’ highest degree

Table 4.4 Highest Degree Received
Degree| Frequency| Percentage|
College degree| 7| 70|
Post Graduate| 3| 30|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Majority of the telecommuters have a college degree. Obviously, those with post graduate degrees, such as managers, require a lot of face time in the company. Managers are the ones who make important decisions and they usually delegate tasks to rank and file employees. 4.1.5 Respondents’ occupation

Table 4.5 Occupation
Occupation| Frequency| Percentage|
Information Technology| 7| 70|
Sales| 1| 10|
Business| 1| 10|
Unidentified| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Since we are in the information age, people in the Information Technology (IT) industry would most likely telecommute since the nature of the job is done using computers. The job titles of the respondents in the IT industry are: * Computerization Project Encoder

* Software Engineer
* Implementation Engineer
* Quality Assurance Analyst
* Oracle Database Administrator
* Contract Programmer
* System Analyst/Implementation Engineer
4.2 About the Job
Table 4.6 Duration in current job
Duration| Frequency| Percentage|
2 to 3 years| 3| 30|
3 to 5 years| 5| 50|
5 to 6 years| 1| 10|
Unanswered| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Most telecommuters are in their current job for three to five years. Before anyone is given the privilege to telecommute, managers should know who among the employees will still be able to perform and deliver results. Table 4.7 Duration in telecommuting

Duration| Frequency| Percentage|
Less than a year| 3| 30|
1 – 2 years| 2| 20|
2 – 3 years| 2| 20|
3 – 5 years| 3| 30|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Three respondents have just started telecommuting and three have been telecommuting for three to five years. This means that fresh graduates are also open to the idea of working remotely and that experienced people are given the privilege to telecommute. Table 4.8 Frequency of telecommuting

Frequency of Telecommuting| Frequency| Percentage|
Four or more days a week| 3| 30|
Three days a week| 1| 10|
Two days a week| 1| 10|
One day a week| 1| 10|
One to four days a month| 4| 40|
TOTAL| 10| 100|
Since the Philippines has just adopted the telecommuting concept lately, it is apparent that telecommuters work from home one to four days a month. Telecommuting is still at an infant stage in our country. Table 4.9 The company has formal Telecommute Agreement in place Answer| Frequency| Percentage|

Yes| 2| 20|
No| 8| 80|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Most companies have no formal telecommute agreement in place yet since telecommuting is still at an infant stage. Table 4.10 The company has formal Telecommuting Guidelines
Answer| Frequency| Percentage|
Yes| 1| 10|
No| 7| 70|
Unanswered| 2| 20|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

There are no telecommuting guidelines since the concept is new and businesses are still testing the waters with this new approach to working. Two (20%) respondents did not answer this question.

Table 4.11 Telecommuting satisfaction
Degree| Frequency| Percentage|
Very satisfied| 4| 40|
Somewhat satisfied| 4| 40|
Neutral| 2| 20|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

A lot of telecommuters are generally satisfied working from home. Table 4.12 Change in productivity since employees began telecommuting Productivity| Frequency| Percentage|
Increased| 6| 60|
Remained the same| 4| 40|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Most telecommuters experienced an increase in productivity since they began telecommuting. Table 4.13 Changes observed by employer with quality of work Changes observed| Frequency| Percentage|

Much better since I started telecommuting| 6| 60|
No change| 3| 30|
Not applicable| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

The quality of work of the telecommuters became much better since they started telecommuting. This may be attributed to the fact that being isolated from colleagues makes telecommuters more focused with their work. Also, they have fewer distractions as opposed to employees who are working physically in the office. Table 4.14 Greatest benefits realized from telecommuting

Benefits| Frequency| Percentage|
Better employee retention| 2| 4.55|
Better morale| 3| 6.82|
Better operational continuity| 8| 18.18|
Better quality of life| 4| 9.09|
Higher productivity| 4| 9.09|
Less absenteeism| 4| 9.09|
Less commuting| 7| 15.91|
Less stress| 4| 9.09|
More flexible work schedule| 7| 15.91|
Reduced office space and less resources required| 1| 2.27| TOTAL| 44| 100|

The top three benefits realized from computing are: better operational continuity (18.18%), less commuting (15.91%), and more flexible work schedule (15.91%).
Business operations nowadays require 24 x 7 support. Telecommuting therefore becomes attractive to business requiring this type of support. On-call engineers are usually required to be available when the need arises to resolve certain issues.

Less commuting reduces stress and the time for travel can therefore be allocated to other important tasks.
More flexible work schedule allows employees to manage their time wisely. 4.3 About Job Performance
Table 4.15 I am productive when working away from the central office. | Frequency| Percentage|
Strongly agree| 2| 20|
Agree| 4| 40|
Neutral| 3| 30|
Disagree| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Most telecommuters agree that they are productive when working away from the central office. This is due to fewer distractions in the office. Table 4.16 My work group is highly productive.
| Frequency| Percentage|
Strongly agree| 1| 10|
Agree| 6| 60|
Neutral| 2| 20|
Unanswered| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Telecommuters agree that their work group is highly productive. Since there is less travel time, efforts in getting work done increase thereby yielding more output. Table 4.17 I usually decide how to complete the projects assigned to me. | Frequency| Percentage|

Strongly agree| 3| 30|
Agree| 4| 40|
Neutral| 1| 10|
Disagree| 1| 10|
Not applicable| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Four out of ten telecommuters agree that they decide how to complete the projects assigned to them. Since there is autonomy, telecommuters can prioritize which tasks or projects be delivered first. Table 4.18 Telecommuting allows me the flexibility to work during my most productive hours.

| Frequency| Percentage|
Strongly agree| 5| 50|
Agree| 3| 30|
Neutral| 1| 10|
Disagree| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Five out of ten respondents strongly agree that telecommuting allows them the flexibility to work during their most productive hours. These respondents must have superiors who understand how their employees work that the telecommuters may have control over their time. Table 4.19 My family is supportive of my telecommuting.

| Frequency| Percentage|
Strongly agree| 5| 50|
Agree| 4| 40|
Neutral| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Five out of ten respondents strongly agree that their families are supportive of their telecommuting. With the demands of family and work life, families appreciate the fact that telecommuters need to work and also be there for them. Table 4.20 Productivity

| Frequency| Percentage|
Excellent| 2| 20|
Very good| 4| 40|
Good| 4| 40|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Four out of ten respondents have very good productivity. This is because employees have greater focus on their tasks. Table 4.21 Interpersonal Skills
| Frequency| Percentage|
Excellent| 2| 20|
Very good| 3| 30|
Good| 4| 40|
Meets minimum requirements| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Four out of ten respondents have good interpersonal skills. It doesn’t mean that if employees are telecommuting that they don’t have to interact with their colleagues anymore. Table 4.22 Dependability

| Frequency| Percentage|
Excellent| 3| 30|
Very good| 6| 60|
Good| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Six respondents are very good when it comes to dependability. Telecommuting makes it possible for employees to become more dependable especially for those supporting 24 x 7 businesses.

Table 4.23 Communication skills
| Frequency| Percentage|
Excellent| 1| 10|
Very good| 4| 40|
Good| 4| 40|
Meets minimum requirements| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Four respondents have very good communication skills. Communications is essential since work is delivered via electronic means such as email. Table 4.24 Ability to work independently
| Frequency| Percentage|
Excellent| 3| 30|
Very good| 6| 60|
Good| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Six respondents rated very good in their ability to work independently. While it is important to have good team work, employees should also be able to work independently.

Table 4.25 Overall performance
| Frequency| Percentage|
Excellent| 1| 10|
Very good| 5| 50|
Good| 4| 40|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Five respondents rated themselves very good in their overall performance. This means that their telecommuting is successful. Table 4.26 Would telecommuting affect your visibility in the organization for promotions?

Answer| Frequency| Percentage|
Yes| 5| 50|
No| 5| 50|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

There is an equal number of respondents who both agree and disagree that their telecommuting will affect their visibility in the organization for promotions. These telecommuters may have their own reasons. But depending on the kind of work they have, some may not be looking to get promoted while the rest may feel a little left out. Whatever the case may be, businesses should clarify with their employees if they will be affected in terms of career growth or not.

Table 4.27 How long do you plan to remain telecommuting?
Answer| Frequency| Percentage|
1 – 2 years| 2| 20|
3 – 5 years| 2| 20|
10 years| 1| 10|
More than 10 years| 1| 10|
Not sure| 1| 10|
Not applicable| 1| 10|
Unanswered| 2| 20|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Two respondents plan to remain telecommuting for one to two years and three to five years. This means that most employees do not wish to telecommute all throughout their professional life and that professional growth is still important. Table 4.28 Is telecommuting good or bad?

Answer| Frequency| Percentage|
Good| 9| 90|
Depends| 1| 10|
TOTAL| 10| 100|

Nine respondents answered that telecommuting is good. This is because the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

Interpretation of Data
Telecommuting, although still at its infant age in the Philippines, has been proven to be working for certain individuals at particular industries especially the Information Technology industry.

Chapter 5
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary of the findings, so conclusions drawn from the findings and the corresponding recommendations.
This study was taken with the general objective of determining the effects of telecommuting in the careers of professionals.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the greatest benefits respondents have realized from telecommuting? 2. How will telecommuting affect respondents professionally? 3. What are the additional key benefits respondents have experienced from telecommuting? 4. What are some of the drawbacks/problems/obstacles respondents have experienced from telecommuting? Summary

1. The greatest benefits respondents have realized from telecommuting are: a. Better operational continuity
b. Less commuting
c. More flexible work schedule
2. How will telecommuting affect respondents professionally? Based on the survey administered, the respondents felt that: d. They will be able to complete more work and accomplish deliverables on or before deadlines. e. They are not that visible in the organization especially when it comes to promotions. f. Work requires them to be on standby at anytime of the day for crucial implementations or critical meeting with users or problems with programs. 3. What are the additional key benefits respondents have experienced from telecommuting? The additional key benefits respondents experienced from telecommuting are: g. Work-life balance.

h. Additional savings as it cuts down expenses.
i. More relaxed. Get more sleep. Less stress.
j. Safety and security.
k. Other things and commitments can be done since they are not required to stay and sit in the office. 4. What are some of the drawbacks /problems/obstacles respondents have experienced from telecommuting? The following are some of the drawbacks /problems/obstacles respondents have experienced from telecommuting: l. Work-life balance.

m. Home environment may not be conducive for working.
n. No infrastructure redundancy, i.e. no backup power or internet access if power outage occurs. o. Helpdesk is not directly available to help when problems are encountered in applications. p. Distractions while working.

q. Bosses expect telecommuters to be available every hour of the day. r. Fewer opportunities to socialize with other people.

Based on the findings derived from this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Telecommuting offers a lot of benefits to employees and employers. 2. Although telecommuting is beneficial, telecommuters will have to be dependable and reliable on critical situations and they may feel left out when it comes to career growth. 3. The benefits of telecommuting far outweigh the challenges. 4. Although telecommuting is becoming the new way to work, there are issues and concerns that both employees and employers need to address to have an effective telecommute setup. Recommendations

The following recommendations are offered based on the findings and conclusion of the study. 1. Employers should establish clear telecommuting guidelines and policies that covers all the aspects of such kind of work setup. 2. A network of telecommuting professionals could be established in order to promote knowledge exchange. 3. A central office station could be built for telecommuting professionals to provide the infrastructure they will need in order to perform their work effectively without distractions.

Wikipedia. Telecommuting [Online] Available

Jay Mulki, Fleura Bardhi, Felicia Lassk and Jayne Nanavaty-Dahl (2009). Set Up Remote Workers to Thrive. [Online] Available

Carlson, Kathy. How to Make Telecommuting Work for Your Company. [Online] Available

Michelle M. Hawkins, Louise L. Soe, Lara Preiser-Houy (1999). The Effectiveness of Telecommuting for the Employee, Employer, and Society. [Online] Available

Margaret Walls, Elena Safirova, and Yi Jiang (2006). What Drives Telecommuting? [Online] Available

Ravi S. Gajendran and David A. Harrison (2007). The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown About Telecommuting: Meta-Analysis of Psychological Mediators and Individual Consequences. [Online] Available

Google. The History of Telecommuting. [Online] Available

Reymers, Kurt. Telecommuting: Attempts at the Re-Integration of Work and Family. [Online] Available

Maruca, Regina Fazio. (2007) How Do You Manage an Off-Site Team? [Online] Available

Lubber, Mindy S. (2008) Telecommuting’s Small Carbon Footprint. [Online] Available

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