An exploration of the Civil Rights Movement, as perceived by Fannie Lou Hammer, Lyndon B. Johnson, Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
African-American Civil Rights Movement In the early 1960s, leaders of the African-American political movement traveled to areas of high oppression. Their intent was to secure equal opportunities for African-Americans. These political leaders were called “African-American civil rights activists.” There are many influential civil rights activists whose legacies have withstood time and have contributed to the United States of America as it is today. Ultimately, it took an entire nation to bring segregation …show more content…
The Jim Crow Laws were established in 1890 under the “separate but equal” act for African-Americans and remained effective until 1965 when segregation was officially repealed. Under the Jim Crow laws, nurses may only treat patients of their own kind. Hospitals also had separate entrances for whites and coloreds. Buses required separate ticket booths, waiting areas, and boarding docks to ensure that races do not intermix. On railroads, the conductor acknowledged all responsibility for seating assignments to ensure that races do not intermingle. Restaurants must be designed in such a way that coloreds have a separate entrance and dining area. It was unlawful for a white and colored man to play a game of billiards together. White and colored men were required by law to have separate bathrooms. White and black schools were conducted separately. Any teacher caught teaching a student of the opposite race would be subject to a fine of $10-$50 per offense. Colored men who found themselves in a white woman’s bedroom at nighttime were sentenced to a year in jail plus fine. Black barbers were not permitted to touch a white female 's hair. In Georgia, a black man must not be buried in the same soil as a white man, even if the black man served in the United State 's Armed Forces. In Baseball, white men were not allowed to …show more content…
The defendant argued that the fourteenth amendment was not violated so long as the separate school houses for the separate races were equal. The plaintiff argued that the separate school houses were in fact not equal. Instead, black Americans received subordinate education, accommodations, and treatment. The US Constitution states that “all men are created equal.” The Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional. Once again, “by 1955 the time was ripe for an organized challenge to Jim Crow in Montgomery.” (Lee, 2006). This time the concentration would be on desegregating public transportation. The public bus was divided into three sections. The first ten rows were reserved for white passengers only, just as the last ten rows were reserved for colored passengers. The middle of the bus was often referred to as “no man 's land.” Colored passengers were allowed to sit in “no man 's land” so long as white passengers had available seats in their section. “On 1 December 1955, after a long day 's work, Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus for a trip home.” Parks paid her ten cents fare, noticed that there were several empty seats in the white section, and chose a seat in no man 's land. After just two stops, the white section filled up with passengers, so the driver stopped the bus and asked Parks and three African-American gentlemen to