Techniques for Teaching Reading to
Dr Shamim Ali is a Professor in the Department of English & Functional Courses,at National University of Modern Languages. She teaches English as Foreign/Second Language to Adult Learners at Foundation,Certificate and Diploma Level.She earned her Doctoral Degree in EnglishLinguistics. Her interests include, Language Teaching, Teaching Language through Literature,Adult language learning Bilingualism,DiscourseAnalysis,Assessment and Evaluation.She has designed basic reading and course for Fundations and Diploma level .
All over the World most effective methods for teaching reading to beginning-level adults have been applied. My continuing challenge has been to determine how reading acquisition research can be applied to teaching reading to adults. In this article, I describe the techniques I have found most useful; I hope other teachers working with beginning readers will find them helpful. This year my class includes 18 students all were men six men. Their ages range from late 20s to late 50s and all are employed. Their educational experiences range from completing four to 12 years of school; 12 students have a high secondary school certificate ,03 students have Higher . Secondary School Certificate and 03 students were graduates. KEY WORDS/TERM ;Adult Learners.Reading Class,Second Language. Typical Lesson Plan for an-Hour Class
| Time (min)
Word Analysis/ Spelling
Word Recognition "Sight Words"
Reading Skills class depends on the mastery of specific subskills, I find it helpful to teach these explicitly. I organize the class into blocks of time in which, with the help of two volunteers, I directly teach eight components of reading: phonological awareness, word analysis, sight word recognition, spelling, oral reading for accuracy, oral reading for fluency, listening comprehension, and writing. These components embody the skills and strategies that successful readers have mastered, either consciously or unconsciously. My lesson plan also includes an intensive writing component. Over the last 30 years, a significant amount of research has compared the effectiveness of different approaches to teaching beginning reading to Adults. It consistently concludes that approaches that include a systematically organized and explicitly taught program of phonics result in significantly better word recognition, spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension (Chall et al ,1890 ) For this reason, I directly teach the structure of the English language using a phonics-based approach. I draw from a number of phonics-based reading programs, including the Wilson Reading System, the Orton-Gillingham System, and the Lindamood-Phoneme Sequencing Program). The Wilson Reading System is a multisensory, phonics-based program developed specifically for adults. Unlike phonics-based programs for children, the Wilson system is organized around the six syllable types, which enables even beginning level adults to read works with somewhat sophisticated vocabularyThe Orton-Gillingham program is a phonics-based program similar to the Wilson Reading System but designed for dyslexic children. Students learn about syllables much later in the program. I find particularly helpful the Orton-Gillingham technique for learning phonetically irregular sight words. The LiPS Program is useful for helping students acquire an awareness of individual sounds in words. This ability, referred to as phonemic awareness, is a prerequisite for reading and spelling. LITERATURE REVIEW
Phonological awareness, which involves the ability to differentiate and manipulate the individual sounds, or phonemes, in words, is the strongest predictor of future reading success for children (Adams, 1995). No research exists that describes the affects of phonological awareness on...
References: Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Adams, M.J. (1995). "Resolving the "great debate"." American Educator, 19(2).
Blackman, J., Bruck, M., Herbert, M., & Seidenberg, M. (1984). "Acquisition and use of spelling-sound correspondences in reading." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38, 114-133.
Chall, J.S. (1967). Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Curtis, M.E. (1980). "Development of components of reading skill." Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 656-669.
Ehri, L.C. (1992). "Reconceptualizing the development of sight word reading and its relationship to encoding." In P. Gough, L. Ehri, & R. Treiman (eds.), Reading Acquisition (pp. 107-144). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Snow, C., & Strucker, J. (2000). "Lessons from preventing reading difficulties in young children for adult learning and literacy." In J. Comings, B. Garner, & C. Smith (eds.), Annual Review for Adult Learning and Literacy, Vol. 1, 25-69. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Stanovich, K.E. (1986). "Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in acquisition of literacy." Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.
Torgesen, J. (1998). "Catch them before they fall; Identification and assessment to prevent reading failure in young children." American Educator, 32-39.
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