A brief history of Syria since the French occupation until
WE CAN CATEGORIZE THE EVENTS
THROUGH WHICH SYRIA WITNESSED
INTO THE FOLLOWING:
Syria after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and French
Occupation in 1920 until the independence in 1946
Syria since the independence until 8th march 1963.
Syria since the first days of 8th march coup until 1970
Syria under the rule of Al-Assad until today.
SYRIA’S FIRST INDEPENDENCE AND
THE FRENCH MANDATE
By the end of the ottoman empire, in the 8th of
march 1920 Syria was given it's independence
by the French and King Faisal bin Al-Hussain was
chosen as the king of the Syrian Arab Kingdom.
However, it was not a complete independence
because the king promised to the French Prime
Minister Georges Clemenceau to surrender the
external relations of Syria to the French.
King Faisals rule didn't last so long because he
couldn't have control over the country and in
14th of July of the same year he surrendered the
rule to the French, in the 23rd of July the same
year the Battle of Maysalun occurred which
resulted by the defeat of the Syrians and putting
Syria under the French mandate until 1946
which began by dividing the kingdom to what it
look like today.
French Prime Minister
(Yemini) in 21,
during this period in 1925 the Great Syrian Revolt
occurred, it was because of the policy of the French
and their division of the land, the revolution lasted
until 1927. in the next year 1928 as an indirect
result of the revolt the legislative elections were
held in Syria and as a result the constitution of the
Republic was placed in 1930. in 1932 Muhammad Ali
Abed was elected and chosen as the first president
of the Republic.
Syria and France negotiated a treaty of
independence in September 1936, and Hashim alAtasy (The head of the National Block) was the first president to be elected under the first incarnation of
the modern republic of Syria. However, the country
didn’t had it’s complete independence because the
French Legislature (Fransa Yasama Meclisi) refused
to confirm on it’s independence. (WWII)
After the fall of France on 1940 in the hands of Nazi
Germany a new France was known as Vichy France,
Syria was under it’s rule that time. However, in July
1941 Syria was occupied by British and Free French
In 1943 an election took place in Syria this time Hashim AlAtasy didn’t participated instead he encouraged the participation of Shukry Al-Quwatli and he was chosen as the
President of Syria. until 30 March 1949.
Shukry Al-Quwatli during his rule he asked the
Representative of France for negotiations about the
independence of Syria. However, in April 1946 with the
pressures of Syrians and the British, France left the country to the hand of a republican government which was created
and formed during the French mandate.
March 1949 coup: Husny Al-Zaeem
• Since the independence and until 1960s Syria went
through many coups. The political situation during that
time was unstable. In 1948 in the Arab-Israeli war Syria
was one of the Arabic forces to fight against Israel.
However, the Arabic forces failed and were defeated.
This defeat was one on the reasons to trigger the
March 1949 military coup in Syria. This was the first
coup ever since the independence and it opened the
gate to many other coups after it. During that same
year two other coups occurred again.
• March 1949 coup was unlead by Husni Al-Zai’m with
the help of Adib Al-Shishakli And Sami Al-Hinawi,
Husni’s Rule took place between 30 March and 19
August of the same year 1949. despite this short rule
over syria, indeed it was a milestone (donum noktasi)
specially considered as the opening of the many coups
which followed it and the last...
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