The idea of sustainable tourism initiated from the idea of sustainable development. There are two forms of tourism industries, which quite a few platforms want to apply to reach sustainable level.
Sustainable Development & Sustainable Tourism
The term sustainable development illustrates the situation where development could happen to satisfy current generation’s needs and wants whereas the next generation would not be victims of unsustainable actions of this generation. From this concept, sustainable tourism easily get the idea of making the tourism development fulfill current generation’s needs and wants without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own ones. The sustainable development spectrum has four dimensions, which varies from very weak, weak to strong and very strong. With very weak sustainability position, people are anthropocentric and utilitarian who do not care about what consequences will be brought out after activities going on whiles a very strong sustainability position means it is totally bioethical and eco-centric where development does not take place. (Hunter, 2002)
Mass Tourism & Alternative Tourism
Mass tourism is psychocentric. It always exists with large number of activities. For example, mass tourism usually carries a significant number of tourists to travel, builds up huge infrastructure like hotel and airport, creates enormous pollution and attracts lots of attention. Alternative tourism is allocentric to midcentric. (Weaver, 2011) It is the opposite of mass tourism where the market is a niche market, number of tourists tends to be less and the behavior is more responsible. Types of alternative tourism include ecotourism, educational tourism, volunteer tourism, cultural tourism and others. Jews maintained their relationship inside Jewish communities through travel and pilgrimage, which in a sense is religious tourism, is also an expression of alternative tourism. (Aviv, 2011)
Jafari’s Tourism Platform
Jafari argued four platforms for tourism industry based on the shifts in people’s attitudes. The first two, advocacy platform and cautionary platform are inter-related with Oppermann’s tourism development paradigm. These are representatives of mass tourism where they write of economic advantages but create disruption to host communities. (Anne Hardy et al, 2002) For example, the large amount of tourists in Bali boosted the economy of the islands meanwhile exploited too many resources like water that made the local residents on the other end of Bali live in misery. The other two platforms which are adaptancy platform and knowledge-based platform are the models Jafari used to describe an alternative tourism industry. Stone (2012) showed that alternative tourism like dark tourism can be regarded as narrative, education, entertainment, memorialisation and others which indicates a lot of good and responsible influences are created by alternative tourism, and it needs sufficient level of knowledge to get along with. (Stone, 2012) However, groups of tourism like backpackers can disturb host community by living in local family’s house which make the contact of each other too close and be offensive to each other especially when there is cultural difference, it will be even harder to accept the tourists by host community.
Hunter’s Adaptive Paradigm
Hunter divides sustainable tourism into two descriptions of light green variant and dark green variant. Under the light green tendencies, it represents that the mass tourism only take action in environment when it is required and beneficial. On the other extreme, dark green tendencies, which represent an alternative tourism, industry benefits the ecosystem and brings very little economic benefits to the host community. These two extremes are considered to be not realistic enough and will be discussed and modified by Macbeth’s platform later. (Hunter, 2002)
Macbeth’s Ethics Based Platform
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