A. Background of the Study
Our country is presently facing from economic crisis. Financial problem is one of the biggest problems of each Filipino family. People tend to budget their money wisely, it is because all the needed things which are sold in the market are all expensive which includes foods, clothing materials and etc. Waste materials like plastics and Styrofoam’s are scattered anywhere. People tend to throw or disposed these wastes to rivers, lakes and seas, which the results caused water pollution and diseases.
Clam shells are very abundant in our locality, which are highly valued as delicacy. Clam shells contain calcium carbonate, which indicates that it can be use as a source of calcium oxide (CaO). Only the meat of the clam will be eaten and the shells are thrown away. So the researchers’ wants to determine if dissolved Styrofoam and powdered Clam shells can be a good component in making tiles.
B. Statement of the Problem
This study aims to produce tile from the mixture of dissolved Styrofoam and powdered clam shells, specifically it aim to determine; a. If dissolved Styrofoam and powdered clam shells is a good component in making tiles. b. Which of the following ratios, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1, powdered clam shells is to dissolve Styrofoam is a good tile using the durability test and water absorption test. c. If the dissolved Styrofoam and powdered clam shells tile is comparable to commercial tile.
C. Statement of the Hypothesis
a. If the dissolved Styrofoam and powdered clam shells is a good component in making tiles then we will try to contact the South Milandia, Inc. (Ceramic and Granite Tiles, Zamboanga City) to recommend our study to them. b. If we will going to conduct the following ratios we will having a three trial test in durability test and water absorption test so that we can identify the durability of each given ratio and to determined the difference of soaked tile (grams) with the initial weight of the tiles. c. If the dissolved Styrofoam and powdered clam shells tile is more comparable to commercial tiles then you can save money and it can help to reduce the amount of Styrofoam’s and in our community.
D. Significance of the Study
This research study aims to produce tile out of dissolved Styrofoam and powdered Clam shells. This research study is important in a way that it can help to minimize the amount of waste materials particularly the non biodegradable ones, which are disposed anywhere. Therefore, this can help to prevent pollution and avoid diseases. This study also helps to prevent the destruction of our environment like rivers, lakes and seas. Finally, this research study also produce useful and affordable tile that each individual can enjoy and have a comfortable houses to live in.
E. Scope and Limitation
The boundary of this research study is to extent the use of dissolved Styrofoam and powdered Clam Shells as tiles. This study limits only on the ratios of 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, powdered Clam Shells and dissolved Styrofoam respectively. This study also limits on the two tests, the durability and water absorption. Three trials were conducted per test per treatment.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Tiles are similar to bricks; they differ in uses, shapes and in finishing. A brick is in the form of a block while a tile is in the form of a sheet. Both are made from the same process and materials but the tile may go through glazing can give it a smooth finish. Tiles are used for walls and flooring.
Clay was used as a material in making tiles. A reserved of 41.5 mil. Tons of clay located in Giengday ensures the production of 100 mil. Bricks and tiles for a period of more than 100 years. Giengday clay high contents of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 as compared to those found in other places that bricks and tiles made of this material are dark red and well-shaped, smooth and of high quality. Gienday clay is really qualified enough to produced ceramic and chinaware, decorative bricks used in extra standard building. (Shriff, 1982)
A clam shell burrows shallowly in sediments of either mud or sand. It is among the most commercially important species of invertebrate. Clams have a large, heavy shell that ranges from being a pale brownish color to shades of gray and white. The exterior of the shell, except nearest the umbo is covered with a series of growth rings. The interior of the shell is colored a deep purple around the posterior edge and hinge.
A. Research Locale
This study will be conducted at Tumulak’s Residence at Villa Luz Drive, Tugong Road, Sta. Maria, Zamboanga City.
B. Research Design
This research is a qualitative type of research for it will compare the commercial tiles and tiles out of Styrofoam and Clam Shells.
C. General Procedure
Preparation of Materials
Shells will be obtained from the fishponds in Zambowood, Zamboanga City. The shells will be wash and then sun-dried. The shells will be pulverized and stained to separate to bigger particles. Styrofoams will be obtained from neighbourhood and from restaurants were it was used as food packaging. The collective Styrofoam will be wash and leave for drying. Three hundred grams of Styrofoam will be dissolved to 1L. of premium gas.
Preparation of Mixtures
The powdered oyster shells and dissolved Styrofoam will be mixed evenly to the following ratios, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1.
Molding and Drying
The prepared mixtures will be poured into the corresponding molders made up of aluminum having 4” X 4” dimensions. The molders will be kept in a cabinet and leave for air drying. The average curing period of the tile is about two to three weeks.
The dried mixture will be glazed by applying lacquer on the tiles. The applied lacquer will leave for drying then second coating will be done and leave again for further drying. Continuous application of the lacquer will be done until the desired glossiness will be achieved.
Testing the Tiles
A. DURABILITY TEST
The durability test will be done by placing the tile on the floor and a load will be drop on the tile with the respective weights of 1.5 kg, and 2 kg to a height of 1 meter. Three trials will be conducted per treatment per test/load. Commercial tiles will also test using the procedure to compare its durability value. B. WATER ABSORPTION TEST
The tiles will be soaked in a basin with water and left for observation for about one (1) day. There will be three trials will be conducted per ratio. Commercial tiles will also test to compare its water resistance value. Initial weights of the tiles will be measured (grams). Water absorption value will be determined by getting the difference of the soaked tile (grams) with the initial weight of the tiles.