Journal of Business Research 60 (2007) 277 – 284
Hofstede's dimensions of culture in international marketing studies Ana Maria Soares a,⁎, Minoo Farhangmehr a,1 , Aviv Shoham b,2 a
School of Economics and Management, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal b
Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, 31905, Israel
Received 1 March 2006; received in revised form 1 August 2006; accepted 1 October 2006
Growth of research addressing the relationship between culture and consumption is exponential [Ogden D., Ogden J. and Schau HJ. Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: toward a microcultural perspective. Academy Marketing Science Review 2004;3.]. However culture is an elusive concept posing considerable difficulties for cross-cultural research [Clark T. International Marketing and national character: A review and proposal for an integrative theory. Journal of Marketing 1990; Oct.: 66–79.; Dawar N., Parker P. and Price L. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 1996; 27(3): 497–516.; Manrai L. and Manrai A. Current issues in the cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1996; 8 (3/4): 9–22.; McCort D. and Malhotra NK. Culture and consumer behavior: Toward an understanding of cross-cultural consumer behavior in International Marketing. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1993; 6 (2): 91–127.; Nasif EG., Al-Daeaj H., Ebrahimi B. and Thibodeaux M. Methodological problems in cross-cultural research: An updated review. Management International Review 1991; 31 (1): 79–91.; Lenartowicz T. and Roth K. A framework for culture assessment. Journal of International Business Studies 1999; 30 (4): 781–98.]. This article examines different approaches to conceptualising and operationalizing culture in marketing studies. The article discusses the advantages of using cultural dimensions — in particular Hofstede's values. The article proposes a three-step approach to operationalize culture including nationality, Hofstede's cultural dimensions and measuring culture at the individual level. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cross-cultural studies; Culture; Cultural dimensions; Hofstede
Culture constitutes the broadest influence on many dimensions of human behavior. This pervasiveness makes defining culture difficult (McCort and Malhotra, 1993). This difficulty hampers research about the influence of culture on international consumer behavior (Manrai and Manrai, 1996; McCort and
Malhotra, 1993; Clark, 1990; Nasif et al., 1991; Dawar et al., 1996; Lenartowicz and Roth, 1999) and has been used to
criticize cross-cultural research (Sekaran, 1983). Culture is “a convenient catchall for the many differences in market structure and behavior that cannot readily be explained in terms of more tangible factors” (Buzzell, 1968: 191), “a ‘rubbish bin’ con⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 253604565; fax: +351 253676375. E-mail addresses: Amsoares@eeg.uminho.pt (A.M. Soares),
Minoo@eeg.uminho.pt (M. Farhangmehr), Ashoham@research.haifa.ac.il (A. Shoham).
Tel.: +351 253604100; fax: +351 253676375.
Tel.: +972 48249580; fax: +972 48249194.
0148-2963/$ - see front matter © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.10.018
cept,” which constitutes rather clear and strong images of the superficial form the concept of culture is often called upon, as an explanatory variable for residuals, “when more operative explanations have proved unsuccessful” (Usunier, 1999: 94). 2. Defining culture
Tylor provides one of the earliest definitions of culture: “the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom and any other capabilities and habit acquired by man as a member of society” (1871, in McCort and Malhotra, 1993:
97). Subsequent contributions share the all-inclusive...
References: training and development. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1990.
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