Stages of children development

Good Essays
Task 1
Describe and explain the stages of children and young people development. Go through such areas as physical, intellectual, social, emotional, behavioural and moral development.

At the beginning, I would like to introduce the best-known theories of development, because it is useful to know how psychologists and scientists describe the stages of children and young people development.
In developmental psychology, we have many types of theories. At the broadest level, we have three grand schemes: psychoanalytic theory, cognitive-developmental theory and learning theory – each designed to describe and explain the human development and human behaviour.
The ‘father’ of psychoanalytic approach is Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that human personality has a structure and develops over time. He proposed three parts: the id – in which the libido (an instinctual sexual drive) is centered; the ego – a much more conscious element that serves as the executive of the personality; and the superego – the center of conscience and morality, incorporating the norms and moral structures of family and society. In Freud’s theory, these three parts are not all present at birth. The infant and toddler is all id, all instinct, without the influence of the ego or the superego. The ego begins to develop in the years from age 2 to about 4, as the child learns to adapt some individual behaviours. Finally, the superego begins to develop before school age, as the child incorporates the parents’ values and cultural traditions. Freud also proposed the stages of psychosexual development. In each stage the libido is invested in that part of the body that is the most sensitive at that age. In a newborn the mouth, lips and tongue are the most sensitive parts of the body. The stage is therefore called oral stage. As neurological development progresses, the infant develops more sensation in the anus (hence the anal stage), and later in the genitalia ( the phallic and eventually

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful