spm essay

Topics: Flour, Price level, Price index Pages: 7 (2280 words) Published: October 25, 2014

INTRODUCTION PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 FURTHER EXPLORATION REFLECTION OBJECTIVE We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared two tasks for us. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, but each of us are expected to submit an individually written report . Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work, we are to gain valuable experiences and able to : apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems  

experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting, meaningful and hence improve our thinking skills  
experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking, reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning  

acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing, and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely  
enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increases interest and confidence prepare for the demands of our future undertakings and in workplace  

realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment  

use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics

Index numbers are meant to study the change in the effects of such factors which cannot be measured directly. According to Bowley, “Index numbers are used to measure the changes in some quantity which we cannot observe directly”. For example, changes in business activity in a country are not capable of direct measurement but it is possible to study relative changes in business activity by studying the variations in the values of some such factors which affect business activity, and which are capable of direct measurement. Index numbers are commonly used statistical device for measuring the combined fluctuations in a group related variables. If we wish to compare the price level of consumer items today with that prevalent ten years ago, we are not interested in comparing the prices of only one item, but in comparing some sort of average price levels. We may wish to compare the present agricultural production or industrial production with that at the time of independence. Here again, we have to consider all items of production and each item may have undergone a different fractional increase (or even a decrease). How do we obtain a composite measure? This composite measure is provided by index numbers which may be defined as a device for combining the variations that have come in group of related variables over a period of time, with a view to obtain a figure that represents the ‘ net’ result of the change in the constitute variables. Index numbers may be classified in terms of the variables that they are intended to measure. In business, different groups of variables in the measurement of which index number techniques are commonly used are (i) price, (ii) quantity, (iii) value and (iv) business activity. Thus, we have index of wholesale prices, index of consumer prices, index of industrial output, index of value of...
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