Spirit burner experiment

Topics: Ethanol, Oxygen, Combustion Pages: 6 (1766 words) Published: May 20, 2014
Spirit Burner Experiment
Aim: To perform an experiment in the labs to determine the heats of combustion of selected alcohols and then to use this information and the gathered data from chemical data sources to determine trends in the longer chain alcohols. The Variables that MUST be controlled throughout the experiment are: •The height from spirit burner nozzle to the base of the water filled beaker •Air drafts around the room must be kept to minimum so as to keep the heat on the base of the beaker a constant Temperature. •Keeping room temperature constant will enable the results to be a little more accurate and reliable The Variables that MUST be measured and recorded before the experiment are: •The weight of the beaker before and after the water has been added to it. •Initial temperature of the water.

The weight of the spirit burner before and after the alcohol has been added. Equipment
The equipment needed to perform this experiment is:
Spirit Burner (Lengthen the wick as to allow for a greater flame produced). •Beaker
Tripod (Preferably wide bottoms as to allow the raising of the spirit burner). •Retort stand
Boss head clamps
Accepted figures from chemical data sources
Estimate heat of combustion on breaking and formation of chemical bonds •Pen/pencil for recoding results
Results table.
Safety glasses
Measuring cylinder
In the experiment that follows the dependent variable is the heat energy in the water while the burning of the different types of alcohol is the independent variable. Variables that must be measured but not necessarily controlled during the experiment are: •Weight of the alcohol and spirit burner before and after they have stopped burning in grams (g). •Final Temperature of the water in degrees Celsius(C°)

Mass of the water and beaker in grams (g)
Make sure to read through the whole experiment and be familiar with it before attempting it. 1)Set up equipment as shown in diagram below:

2)Record the following :
Initial temperature of water (C°)
Weight of beaker without and with water calculating amount of water in beaker (g). •Weight of spirit burner with alcohol in it (g).
3)Remove all flammable material away from experiment and put on glasses and other necessary safety equipment. 4)Begin burning the alcohol from spirit burner while making sure to minimize air drafts and distance between the spirit burner nozzle and the base of the beaker. 5)When you have deemed the water has risen enough in temperature or enough alcohol has been burnt off turn off the spirit burner and quickly record the final temperature of the water.(Burn for at least 5 mins to burn off a measurable amount of alcohol). 6)Measure and record the following variables:

Weight of spirit burner after burning (CAREFUL it may still be hot). •Mass Of water (Should still be the same but might have lost some due to evaporation). 7)Convert the weight of the alcohol in grams to amount of moles. 8)Calculate joules per gram with –MCAT equation then calculate Joules per mole by using the moles formula. 9)Compare calculations against their accepted figure from chemical data sources and the estimate based on the breaking and forming of chemical bonds.

Weight of Beaker without water(g)_________
Weight of Beaker with water(g)____________
Mass of water(g)_________
Initial Temperature of water(C°)__________
Final Temperature of water(C°)___________
Change in Temperature of water(C°) _______
Weight of spirit burner and alcohol before burning(g)________ Weight of spirit burning and alcohol after burning(g)__________ Amount of alcohol burnt(g)_______
Accepted Joules per gram and per mole from Chemical data sources Methanol: -726 kJ mol-1 Methanol: -22kJ/g
Ethanol :-1367 kJ mol-1Ethanol: -29kJ/g
1-Propanol :-2021 kJ mol-1Propanol: -33kJ/g
1-Butanol :-2676 kJ mol-1Butanol: -36 kj/g

Calculated Joules...
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