In GMS-401 we study 2 types:
1. Inspection for variables —there is typically one dimension most indicative of QUALITY or lack of Quality of an item being studied for compliance to a Quality Standard. Here it is a dimension such as the contents of a jar of fruit jam, the size of a pair of shoes etc. These are called X-bar and R charts. One calculates X-bar-bar and R-bar averages and these are the centre lines of the SPC run-charts that will be drawn. The charts MUST have these centre lines PLUS upper and lower control AND range limits. The points on these graphs MUST be joined so that a reader can follow the level of quality versus centre lines and control limits over time and look for trends and potential out-of-control conditions.
The data will be in a set of readings typically taken at say one-hour intervals. The number of readings taken each hour is the sample size–for example 4 jars of jam in the exercise book. The sample size of 4 is used in calculating the control limits and for determining the value of the statistical constants used in these calculations such as A2, D3,D4.
The “number of samples” is 10 but the “sample size” is 4.
The 10 samples will be plotted on a graph but the number 10 in this case is NOT used in the calculation of control limits when looking up the A2,D3, and D4 values.
In this type of SPC BOTH graphs must be drawn and examined. If a SINGLE POINT on either graph exceeds the upper or lower control or range limits, the process is said to be “out of control”. If NO points exceed the range or control limits, the process is said to be “in control”.
In addition the analyst will examine the graphs for patterns showing either expected random behaviour or the tendency towards an out-of-control condition. The QUALITY GURUS: Deming, Juran, Crosby, Taguchi, Feigenbaum were the originators and proponents of SPC. Their themes were:
1. A statistical sample can be taken and