social studies task 1

Topics: Pornography, Erotica, Pornography by genre Pages: 22 (5613 words) Published: December 4, 2013
For other uses, see Pornography (disambiguation).
"Porn" redirects here. For other uses, see Porn (disambiguation). "Sexually explicit" redirects here. For non-pornographic sexually explicit media, see erotica.

Pornography (often abbreviated as "porn" or "porno" in informal usage) (Greek: πορνεία, porneia, fornication) is the explicit portrayal of sexual subject matter for the purpose of sexual arousal. Pornography may use a variety of media, including books, magazines, postcards, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. A pornographic model poses for still photographs. A pornographic actoror porn star performs in pornographic films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in porn films may be also be called a model. Pornography is often distinguished from erotica, which consists of the portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on feelings and emotions, while pornography involves the depiction of acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions.[1][2] Pornography is generally classified as either softcore orhardcore pornography. A pornographic work is characterized as hardcore if it has any hardcore content, no matter how small. Softcore pornography generally contains nudity or partial nudity in sexually suggestive situations, but not explicit sexual activity, sexual penetration or "extreme" fetishism. Hardcore pornography contains graphic sexual activity and visible penetration. Pornography has often been subject to censorship and legal restraints to publication on grounds of obscenity. Such grounds and even the definition of pornography have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts.[3] With the emergence of social attitudes more tolerant of sexuality and more specific legal definitions of obscenity, an industry for the production andconsumption of pornography arose in the latter half of the 20th century. The introduction of home video and the Internet saw booms in a worldwide porn industry that generates billions of dollars annually. Contents

1 Sub-genres
2 Economics
2.1 Non-commercial pornography
3 Technology
3.1 Computer-generated images and manipulations
3.2 3D pornography
4 Production and distribution by region
5 Legal status
5.1 Copyright status
6 Effects
7 Statistics
8 Etymology
9 History
10 Objections to pornography
10.1 Feminist objections
10.2 Legal objections
10.3 Religious objections
11 See also
12 References
13 Further reading
13.1 Advocacy
13.2 Opposition
13.3 Neutral or mixed
14 External links

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2010) Main article: List of pornographic sub-genres

Former hardcore porn star Penny Flamein a cheesecake image (no penetration, genitals not visible, no nudity, but implicitly sexually suggestive content) Generally, softcore is pornography that does not depict penetration (usually, genitals are not shown on camera),[4] while hardcore is pornography that contains explicit penetration.[5] Pornography is classified according to the physical characteristics of the participants, fetish, sexual orientation, etc., as well as the types of sexual activity featured. Reality and voyeur pornography, animated videos, and legally prohibited acts also influence the classification of pornography. The genres of pornography are based on the type of activity featured and the category of participants, such as: Alt porn

Amateur pornography
Ethnic pornography
Fetish pornography
Group sex
Reality pornography
Sexual-orientation-based pornography
Straight porn (unless otherwise...

References: 1. Jump up^ William J. Gehrke (1996-12-10). "Erotica is Not Pornography". The Tech.
2. Jump up^ "h2g2 - What is Erotic and What is Pornographic?". 2004-03-29. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
3. Jump up^ H. Mongomery Hyde (1964) A History of Pornography: 1–26.
4. Jump up^ Martin Amis (2001-03-17). "A rough trade" Retrieved 2012-02-29.
7. Jump up^ Richard, Emmanuelle (2002-05-23). "The Naked Untruth". Alternet. Archived from the original on 2004-09-28. Retrieved 2006-09-08.
8. Jump up^ Schlosser, Eric (2003-05-08). Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-33466-7. Schlosser 's book repeats the $10 billion figure without additional evidence
14. Jump up^ "Hong Kong filmmakers shoot 'first ' 3D porn film".Yahoo. 2010-08-08. Archived from the original on 2010-08-15. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
15. Jump up^ "Hong Kong filmmakers shoot 'first ' 3D porn film". Asian Sex Gazette. 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
16. Jump up^ “Strange and wonderful” Budapest — Where the living is increasingly pleasant...and still very cheap. (1989-09-11). Retrieved 2011-04-21.
17. Jump up^ Sex trade moguls thrive by the Blue Danube – World, News. The Independent (1996-07-21). Retrieved 2011-04-21.
21. Jump up^ Masnick, Mike (2011-11-04). "Court Wonders If Porn Can Even Be Covered By Copyright". Tech Dirt. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
23. Jump up^ Riddle, Benjamin L.; McBrayer, McGinnis, Leslie and Kirkland, PLLC (July 26, 2012). "The Irony of the Communications Decency Act". The National Law Review. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
25. Jump up^ Doidge, Norman (2007). "Acquiring tastes". The Brain That Changes Itself. Penguin Books. pp. 105–106.
27. Jump up^ Edelman, Benjamin. "Red Light States: Who Buys Online Adult Entertainment?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 23, Number 1 (Winter 2009), pages 209–220.
30. Jump up^ history of the word pornography | podictionary – for word lovers – dictionary etymology, trivia & history. podictionary (2009-03-13). Retrieved on 2011-04-21. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11.
31. Jump up^ Richard Rudgley (2000). The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age. Simon and Schuster. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-0-684-86270-5. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
32. Jump up^ H. Montgomery Hyde A History of Pornography. (1969) London, Heinemann; p. 14.
33. Jump up^ Foxon, D. F. Libertine Literature in England, 1660–1745,1965, p. 45.
34. Jump up^ Wagner, "Introduction", in Cleland, Fanny Hill, 1985, p. 7.
35. Jump up^ Lane, Obscene Profits: The Entrepreneurs of Pornography in the Cyber Age, 2000, p. 11.
36. Jump up^ Browne, The Guide to United States Popular Culture, 2001, p. 273, ISBN 0-87972-821-3; Sutherland, Offensive Literature: Decensorship in Britain, 1960–1982, 1983, p. 32,ISBN 0-389-20354-8.
39. Jump up^ From the precedent set by R. v. Curl (1729) following the publication of Venus in the Cloister.
40. Jump up^ Beck, Marianna (May 2003). "The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections". Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility. Retrieved 2006-08-22.
41. Jump up^ Bottomore, Stephen; Stephen Herbert and Luke McKernan, eds. (1996). "Léar (Albert Kirchner)". Who 's Who of Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 2006-10-15.
42. Jump up^ Bottomore, Stephen; Stephen Herbert and Luke McKernan, eds. (1996). "Eugène Pirou". Who 's Who of Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 2006-10-15.
44. Jump up^ Corliss, Richard (March 29, 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic". Time Magazine (Time inc). Retrieved 2006-10-16.
45. Jump up^ Dugdale, John (2 May 2013). "Porn studies is the new discipline for academics". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
46. Jump up^ Shrage, Laurie. (2007-07-13). "Feminist Perspectives on Sex Markets: Pornography". In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
48. Jump up^ "A Conversation With Catherine MacKinnon (transcript)".Think Tank. 1995. PBS. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
49. Jump up^ MacKinnon, Catharine (1987). Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 147.
50. Jump up^ Jeffries, Stuart (2006-04-12). "Stuart Jeffries talks to leading feminist Catharine MacKinnon". The Guardian(London).
53. Jump up^ Sherkat and Ellison, 1999, "Recent Developments and Current Controversies in the Sociology of Religion",Annual Review of Sociology 25, p. 370.
Susie Bright. "Susie Sexpert 's Lesbian Sex World and Susie Bright 's Sexual Reality: A Virtual Sex World Reader", San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press, 1990 and 1992. Challenges any easy equation between feminism and anti-pornography positions.
Betty Dodson. "Feminism and Free speech: Pornography". Feminists for Free Expression 1993. May 8, 2002
Kate Ellis
Susan Griffin. Pornography and Silence: Culture 's Revenge Against Nature. New York: Harper, 1981.
Gever, Matthew (1998-12-03). "Pornography Helps Women, Society". UCLA Bruin. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
McElroy, Wendy (2000-06-29). "You Are What You Read?". Retrieved 2011-07-03. Defends the availability of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns.
McElroy, Wendy. "A Feminist Defense of Pornography". Council for Secular Humanism. Retrieved 2011-07-03.[dead link]
Newitz, Annalee (May 8, 2002). "Obscene Feminists: Why Women Are Leading the Battle Against Censorship". San Francisco Bay Guardian
Blumen, Jonathan (November 1995). Nadine Strossen: Pornography Must Be Tolerated 1 (11).
Tucker, Scott (1991). "Gender, Fucking, and Utopia: An Essay in Response to John Stoltenberg 's Refusing to Be a Man". Social Text (27): 3–34. Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin 's positions on pornography and power.
Assiter, Alison (1989). Pornography, feminism, and the individual
Carse, A., 1995, "Pornography: An Uncivil Liberty?", Hypatia10(1): 155-182. An argument for approaches to end harm to women caused by pornography.
Hill, J. 1987, "Pornography and Degradation", Hypatia 2: 39-54. A critique of the pornographic industry within a Kantianethical framework.
Michael Kimmel. "Men Confront Pornography". New York: Meridian—Random House, 1990. A variety of essays that try to assess ways that pornography may take advantage of men.
Secondary Negative Effects on Employees of the Pornographic Industry, by Shelley Lubben
MacKinnon, C., 1984, "Not a Moral Issue", Yale Law & Policy Review 2(2): 321-345
MacKinnon, C., 1989, "Sexuality, Pornography, and Method: 'Pleasure under Patriarchy '" Ethics 99(2): 314-346.
Vadas, M., 1992, "The Pornography / Civil Rights Ordinance v. The BOG: And the Winner Is...?", Hypatia 7(3): 94-109.]",Hypatia 84(9): 487-511. An argument that pornography increases women 's vulnerability to rape.
Williams, B. (ed.), 1988, Pornography and Sexual Violence: Evidence of the Links, London: Everywoman. A representation of the causal connections between pornography and violence towards women.
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