screening of cellulase

Topics: Cellulose, Enzyme, Fungus Pages: 4 (856 words) Published: December 18, 2013


Title:
Screening of Cellulolytic Activity of Locally Isolated Thermophilic Fungi

Title:Screening of Cellulolytic Activity of Locally Isolated Thermophilic Fungi Objective:To screen for thermophilic fungi as producer of fungal cellulase.

Introduction
One of the most important sources of carbon that is abundantly found on this planet is cellulose. While cellulase is the enzyme to degrade this carbon and it is a key enzyme in the bio refinery process of producing green chemicals (Ponnambalam et al., 2011). In screening for the cellulolytic fungi, several qualitative display of cellulolytic such congo red clearing zone assay, gel diffusion assay and dyed congo red filter paper clearing zone assay can be used. In this screening, congo red clearing zone assay is performed on 9 unknown fungi isolates on CMC media. Cellulose degradation and its subsequent utilizations are important for global carbon sources (Ponnambalam et al., 2011). The hydrolysis of cellulose has become an interesting research and industrial research since it is one of the renewable source for bioconversion (Bai et al., 2012). Cellulose will be degraded into glucose and then further used for the production of subsequent products such ethanol, organic acids and other chemicals. During the growth of fungi, cellulase can be induced and synthesized by them as long as there is presence of cellulose in the growth media (Lee and Koo, 2001). Different types of cellulase are required in order to complete the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials into end products (Yi et al., 1999). These are endoglucanase, exocellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase. The endoglucanase will randomly hydrolyze β-1,4 bonds in the cellulose molecule and the exocellobiohydrolase in most cases release a cellobiose unit showing a recurrent reaction from the chain extremity. Lastly, the cellobiose is converted to glucose by glucosidase (Bhat el a., 1997). Predominantly, fungi are the main source in...

References: Bai, S., Kumar, M.R., Kumar, D.J.M., Balashanmugam, P., Kumaran, M.D.B., Kalaichelvan, P.T. 2012. Cellulase Production by Bacillus subtilis isolated from Cow Dung. Archives of Applied Science Research 4(1): 269-279
Bhat, M.K. and Bhat, S. 1997. Cellulase degrading enzymes and their potential industrial applications. Biotechnology Advances 15: 583–620.
Lee, S.M. and Koo, Y.M. 2001. Pilot-scale production of cellulose using Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 in fed-batch mode. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11: 229-233.
Ponnambalam, A.S., Deepthi, R.S., and Ghosh, A.R. 2011. Qualitative Display and Measurement of Enzyme Activity of Isolated Cellulolytic Bacteria. Biotechnololgy, Bioinformatic and Bioengineering 1(1): 33-37
Yi, J.C., Sandra, J.C., John A.B. and Shu-ting, C. 1999. Production and distribution of endoglucanase ,cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase components of the cellulolytic system of Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 553-559.
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