Safety Culture vs Safety Climate

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Contents
Introduction 2
3.1 Safety Culture 3
3.2 Safety Climate 5
3.3 Culture versus Climate 6
3.4 Why is addressing culture, being promoted as the panacea to the problem of health and safety performance, particularly in the construction industry? 8
3.5 Can culture be measured in an organisation? If so, how can it be measured? 9
3.6 What are the factors/components of culture? 10
3.7 How can health and safety culture be promoted in an organisation? 12
References 18

Introduction
Health and Safety until very recently have been terms and conditions that have been overlooked by many industry participants. Companies don’t want have to spend their money and time on something they feel does not contribute directly to the production process and seems more of a disadvantageous task more than anything else. According to Bakri et al (2006:19), providing a safe and healthy workplace can actually be considered as one of the most effective cost reduction strategies. Accidents and property losses can result in a great loss to the company, not only do they cause delays in operations but also directly and indirectly incur excess costs.
Wiegmann and von Thaden (2007:2) agree and conclude with various authors that the beginning of the safety culture period of accident investigation and analysis can be traced back to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in which a “poor safety culture” was identified as a factor contributing to the accident by both the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Agency.
The Chernobyl disaster was the worst accident with regard to nuclear power generation. The recognition of the importance of safety culture based from this experience and to prevent future accidents has led to a plethora of studies attempting to define and assess safety culture in a number of complex, high-risk industries (Zhang et al, 2002:2).
In the remaining portion of the document we elaborate further around issues dealing with safety culture and safety climate



References: ABS. (2012) Guidance notes on safety culture and leading indicators of safety. Available from: www.eagle.org/eagleExternalPortalWEB/.../Rules...Safety/Guide (Accessed 14 July 2012). Bakri, A., Zin, R. M., Misnan, M. S. & Mohammed, A. H. (2006). Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management Systems: Towards Development of safety and health culture. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia. Blair, E. (2003). Culture & leadership: seven key points for improved safety performance. Professional Safety (6), 18-22. Brazier, A. (2007). Health and Safety 2008. Ch 4. Available from: http://www.andybrazier.co.uk/Health&safety/book.htm (Accessed 13 July 2012) Brown, K Burns, C. (2005). Dual Attitudes about Trust in Safety Culture. The Business Review, Cambridge, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 92-98. Cai, W. (2005). The impact of safety culture on safety performance: A case study of a construction company, Indiana University. Clarke, S. (1999). Perceptions of organizational safety: Implications for the development of safety culture Cooper, M.D. (1998). Improving Safety Culture. A practical guide. London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Cooper, M.D. (2000). Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science 36, pp. 111-136. Coyle, I., Sleeman, S., & Adams, D. (1995). Safety climate. Journal of Safety Research, 22, pg 247-254. Cox, S & Flin, R (1998). Safety culture: philosopher’s stone or man of straw? Work and Stress, No.12, Vol.3, pp189-201 Cullen, W.D. (1990). The public inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. Department of Energy London:HMSO Dester, W.S Flin, R., Mearns, K., O 'Connor, P., & Bryden, R. (2000). Measuring safety climate: identifying the common features Gadd, S. & Collins, A.M. (2002). Safety Culture: A review of the literature. Human Factors Group. Geller, E. S. (2000). Behavioral safety analysis: A necessary precursor to corrective action Glendon, AI & Stanton, NA. (2000). Perspectives on safety culture. Safety Science, Vol. 34, pp193-214. Greenberg, N., Langston, V. & Gould, M. (2007). Culture - What Is Its Effect on Stress in the Military? Military medicine. vol. 172, no. 9, pp. 931-935. Guldenmund FW. (2000). The nature of safety culture: A review of theory and research. Hale, AR. (2000). Culture’s confusions. Safety Science. vol.34, no1-3, 1-14. Hall, M.E. (2006). measuring the safety climate of steel mini-mill workers using an instrument validated by structural equation modeling, The University of Tennessee. (Accessed 14 July 2012). Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). (2002). Safety Culture: A review of the literature. United Kingdom: Crown. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/hsl_pdf/2002/hsl02-25.pdf (Accessed 14 July 2012) James, L.A Lee, T. & Harrison, K. (2000). Assessing safety culture in nuclear power stations. Safety Science Lee, T. (1998). Assessment of safety culture at a nuclear reprocessing plant. Work and Stress. Oak, M. (2011). Importance of Culture. Available from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-culture.html Niskanen, T. (1994). Safety climate in the road administration. Safety Science, vol. 17, pg 237-255. Pidgeon, N. & O’Leary, M. (2000). Man-made disasters: why technology and organizations (sometimes) fail. Safety Science, Vol.34, pp15-30. Reason, J. (1990). Human error. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Austin, J. (2000). Does BBS Work? Behavior-Based Safety &Injury Reduction: A Survey of the Evidence. Professional Safety, 45(7), 19-24. Uttal, B. (1983). The corporate culture vultures. Fortune Magazine, 17 October. Wiegmann, D.A. & von Thaden, T.L. (2007). A review of safety culture theory and its potential supplication to traffic safety. Institute of Aviation, Human Factors Division, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. Wiegmann, D.A., Zhang, H., von Thaden, T.L., Sharma, G. & Mitchell, A.A. (2002). A Synthesis of Safety Culture and Safety Climate Research. Aviation Research Lab Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Illinois. Yule, S Zohar, D. (1980). Safety Climate in Industrial Organizations: Theoretical and Applied Implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), pg 96-102.

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