1. In the book “Management and Creativity” (Bilton, 2007), Wilson and Cummings define strategy as two distinctive approaches; strategy as position and strategy as process. The former, also referred to as strategy as orientation, takes a more top-down approach and is concentrated around a single leader. It attempts to establish a strategic position that will serve as a basis for differentiation, which is commonly seen as original and innovative. However, a successful implementation of the strategy often requires high monitoring and a hierarchal structure. Thus, the process itself is quite uncreative and there is little room for changes and innovation after the strategy has been established. The leader plays an important role in this strategic approach by setting vision and directing employees, and he or she is often strongly associated with the organization. Ryanair’s CEO Michael O’Leary is a great example of a leader within an orientation strategy organization.
The other approach outlined by Wilson and Cummings is strategy as animation. This adhocracy style is commonly adapted by creative organizations and the strategy is more of an evolving process than a fixed strategic position. It is built upon small, continuous changes that emerge incrementally within the organization. In difference from orientation, adhocracy takes a bottom-up approach and the strategy is developed through a collective activity. The leaders role is not to govern and direct, but to set frames, and recognize and build upon meaningful patterns. Shared goals and values hold the company together and serve as the glue in the organization. The animation film studio Pixar serves as a great example of the adhocracy approach. Their process-oriented strategy and bottom-up approach has helped to nurture creativity and build a culture where everyone’s ideas matters and all employees are urged to speak their minds. Thus, creativity is seen as something that evolves through systems and networks, and...
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