Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: application on Fire Detection
Abstract: this paper is about fire detection in building using a modified APTEEN routing protocol. Here we design a system called iFireControl which is a smart detection system for buildings, which is more water efficient than many current systems, while keeping its robustness.
A Wireless Sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensors activity.
The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; nowadays such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, Agriculture, Area Monitoring, Smart Home Monitoring, Seismic Monitoring etc.
Wireless Sensor Networks provide a bridge between the real physical and virtual worlds; allow the ability to observe the previously unobservable at a fine resolution over large spatio-temporal scales. The WSN is built of “nodes” from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. A sensor node might vary in size from that of a shoebox down to the size of a grain of dust, although functioning "motes" of genuine microscopic dimensions have yet to be created. The cost of sensor nodes is similarly variable, ranging from a few to hundreds of dollars, depending on the complexity of the individual sensor nodes. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and communications
bandwidth.The topology of the WSNs can vary from a simple star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network. The propagation technique between the hops of the network can be routing or flooding. Our paper is divided into three sections.in the first section we make a comparison of routing protocols suitable for fire detecting in buildings. the second part talk about the implementation of the iFireControl, the last section is about the simulation and the possible extensions of the iFireControl
Comparison of Routing protocols suitable for fire detecting in buildings
As said before our IFireControl system was aimed to deal with fire in buildings. To choose the most suitable routing protocol we considered several features of our case. First of all, fires in individual buildings happen very infrequently, which in terms of wireless sensor networks means that there is very small amount of events that will happen. Secondly, we need to be sure that all firefighting instances are notified on time to effectively cope with fire, which means that our sensor nodes must react immediately on happened fire and send information to the desired destinations. And the last, but not least feature is that we need always be sure that all sensor nodes are working correctly and have enough energy before batteries would be changed. Considering features above firstly we thought about Rumor Routing protocol, because it performs best when the number of events is small. Rumor routing is a variation of directed diffusion and is mainly intended for applications where geographic routing is not feasible. In general, directed diffusion uses flooding to inject the query to the entire network when there is no geographic criterion to diffuse tasks. However, in some...
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