INTRODUCTION TO CRIMNOLOGY
CRM 1300 E
By: Bhavna Bakshi
Course Code: CRM 1300 E
Professor: Professor Waller
Date Submitted: Thursday, June-12-08
I believe change derives from feeling unsafe to being safe and making an impact to the levels of victimization. This is why I want to now direct your attention to the risk factors of crime and victimization; level of crime in our province; and how much crime it is costing for Ontario’s taxpayers. In addition, I would like to propose several recommendations that can make significant changes to Ontario’s crime level and reduce victimization.
1. The Risk of Crime and Victimization to Canadians and its costs to taxpayers and to victims The risk of crime and victimization in general generates significant impact on taxpayers and victims in terms of expenses, because police officers are trying their best to catch offenders. No matter how much taxpayers spend, it will not lead to drastic reductions in crime, rather it will cost twice as much and will lead to cutting back social programs. In this case, the social programs are most effective strategies to utilize in decreasing crime. It is the misconception that punishing harder to criminals will protect Canadians and citizens from harm. In contrast, the reason for such expenditure on crime prevention is that police officers are hired more from the government, which leads to more work for lawyers, and which leads to paying more for incarceration. The concept behind preventing crime loses its meaning through increase policies and over paid programs that reduces the effect in reducing crime or the lesson. Therefore, when investing in such programs or strategies, it is important to make sure that the focus is towards the basic principles of justice for crime victims.
2. The Causes and Prevention of Youth Crime
The causes of youth crime develop from three longitudinal studies that show the risks such as: (1) Raising children up with inconsistent and uncaring parenting which includes the witnessing of violence in home (2) Youths being excluded from or dropping out of secondary school (3) Young adults being frequently unemployed and with relatively limited income. In addition to the longitudinal studies, there have been other causes for children to become persistent offenders that tend to grow up with more negativity around family and school experiences, such as being :
Born into a family in relative poverty and inadequate housing
Brought up with inconsistent and uncaring parenting, including violence
Living with a culture of violence on television and in the neighbourhood In order for prevention to take place, an investment must take place in parenting and child development. There are several prevention programs that help in reducing persistent delinquency between the ages of 12 to 18 year olds. First one being is the Quantum Opportunities program put that took place in 1989 as an RCT and evaluated by Dr. Hahn in Okalahoma City, Philadelphia, Saginaw and San Antonio. Scientists demonstrated that this program reduces crime by comparing the outcomes of the proportion of youth arrested with a control group of youth who were not selected to participate in the program. The proportion of those arrested after they completed the program was 70 percent lower that the proportion of youth arrested in the control group. Another program designed for youth between the ages of 12 and 18 is one which focuses on families with youth at risk. The approach named “Functional Family Therapy” helps families identify that they can improve situations and shows them how they can change particular ones. It was demonstrated that this particular program reduced crime by comparing the proportion of youth arrested who have gone through the program to the proportion arrested in a comparison group in clinical trials. Through these comparisons scientists have...
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