ORNISH 10-11 QUESTIONS
Chapter 10a: The reversal and prevention diets.
What are the characteristics of the reversal diet? (p.256) -low fat and no cholesterol
-less than 10% of total calorie intake from fat (small amount of saturated) -Food high in saturated fat is excluded (avocadoes, seeds, nuts) -high fiber diet
-alcohol limited to less than 2 oz daily
-nonfat milk/yogurt allowed, all animal products and oils excluded -egg whites allowed
-no caffeine, MSG, stimulants
-salt/sugar allowed, but in moderation
-no restriction in calories (even though most people on this diet obtain less calories daily than person not on diet).
What is the typical American diet and how does the reversal diet compare? (p. 257) -Typical American diet: 40-50% fat (saturated being the highest)., 25-35% carbs, 25% protein, and 400-500 mg cholesterol/day. -Reversal diet: 10% fat (polyunsaturated/monounsaturated being highest), 70-75% carbs, 15-20% protein, and 5 mg cholesterol/day.
Why does eating a lot of fat give you a quintuple whammy? -Eating a lot of fat gives you a quintuple whammy because:
a. each gram of fat intake has twice as many calories when comparing to carb calories b. fat calories are harder to burn off than carbs
c. fat in the diet converts itself into body fat, but small amount of complex carbs are converted to body fat. d. blood cholesterol levels increase because of saturated fat increase in diet e. foods high in saturated fat are high in cholesterol as well
Is the diet too low in protein?
-the diet is lower in protein than the typical American diet, as stated on page 259. In the reading, it is also mentioned that most Americans do not have to worry about not getting enough protein in the diet; excess protein can cause bone demineralization and osteoporosis.
Where does blood cholesterol come from?
-3/4 of the cholesterol in blood is made by the body. Cholesterol is increased or decreased in production by the liver (p. 263).
What did Dr. Stamler and his colleagues find for high cholesterol? -the study found that men who had cholesterol levels higher than 180 had a higher mortality from heart disease (p. 263).
How many grams of fat does the average person consume and how much do they need? -on average, we need to consume less than 14 grams of fat/day, but people consume eight times the amount (p. 264).
What is the difference between saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat? -The difference between the saturated and unsaturated fats are that saturated fats increase cholesterol levels in the blood. Fats are comprised of these three components in varying proportions (p. 264)
What does hydrogenation mean?
-Hydrogenation is the process where oils or fats become more saturated. Hydrogenation helps the shelf life of products (p. 265).
What do epidemiological research studies tell us about saturated fat and cholesterol? (p. 266) -More cholesterol and saturated fat in the diet means higher blood cholesterol and blood pressure levels. -These two problems contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease -Even if your blood cholesterol level and blood pressure level doesn’t rise too much, the more cholesterol and saturated fat that is eaten, the greater the risk of cardiac problems. -vegetarian diets low in fat and cholesterol earlier in life remain lower as people age and contributes to lower rates of heart disease. -people with typical American diet will have blood pressure and cholesterol problems later on in life even if they didn’t have those problems before and therefore develop higher rates of heart disease.
Chapter 10b: The reversal and prevention diets.
What is the difference between HDL and LDL? What is the ratio? -HDL is high density lipoprotein and LDL is low density. HDL is the good cholesterol and LDL is the bad. HDL removes extra cholesterol from the blood and helps transport LDL out of cells, into bile...
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