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Topics: Nutrition
NUTRITION LEARNING OUTCOMES & OUTLINE
CHAPTER 1
Learning outcomes and/or review questions are included within each chapter of your textbook. These outcomes/questions can be used to evaluate your progress concerning the content of the assigned chapter or exercise. The following chapter outcomes and vocabulary terms are provided to complement your textbook and to assist you as you organize your notes in preparation for test evaluation. They are not designed to inhibit your learning experience; there is certainly other information within each chapter that would be essential in total comprehension of these concepts.

CHAPTER 1: CHOOSING WHAT YOU EAT AND WHY
Student Learning Outcomes
-1.1 Describe how our food habits are affected by the flavor, texture and appearance of food; routines and habits; early experiences and customs; advertising; nutrition and health concerns; restaurants; social changes; and economic; as well as physiological processes affected by meal size and composition.
-Compare/contrast hunger, appetite and satiety.
-Discuss how satiety is regulated.
-Define hormone; identify the role of endorphins, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, leptin, serotonin and cholecystokinin as related to hunger or satiety.
-1.2 Identify diet and lifestyle factors that contribute to the leading causes of death in
North America.
-Define essential nutrient and identify three characteristics of an essential nutrient.
-1.3 Define the terms nutrition, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, alcohol, vitamin, mineral, water, kilocalorie and fiber.
-Identify the major nutrient classes and describe their function in the human body.
-1.4 Determine the total calories of a food or diet using the weight and calorie content of the energy-yielding nutrients and use the basic units of the metric system to calculate percentages. -1.5 List the major characteristics of the North American diet, the food habits that often need improvement, and the key “Nutrition and Weight Status” objectives of the
Healthy People 2020 report.
-1.6 Describe a basic plan for health promotion and disease prevention and what to expect from good nutrition and a healthy lifestyle.
-1.7 Identify food and nutrition issues relevant to college students.
Other Selected Vocabulary Terms
Simple Sugar
Macronutrient
Complex Carbohydrate
Saturated Fatty Acid
Enzyme
Inorganic
Gene
Appetite
Hypothalamus

Glucose
Micronutrient
Triglyceride
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Amino Acid
Metabolism
Ion
Satiety
Phytochemical

Cell
Electrolyte
Fatty Acid
Trans Fat
Organic
Solvent
Hunger
Adipose Tissue
Kilocalorie

Read the Concept Checks and Summary for the chapter and utilize the Study Questions and Check
Your Knowledge questions at the end of the chapter. Work on learning the vocabulary words located on the page margins within the chapter. The Online Learning Center for Contemporary
Nutrition offers quizzes, flashcards and links to current nutrition articles.

CHOOSING WHAT YOU EAT AND WHY
1.1 Why Do You Choose The Food You Eat?
A. Two Pursuits Contribute to Overall Health
1. Healthy food choices/diet (especially rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains)
2. Regular physical activity
B. What Influences Your Food Choices?
-food choices stem from a mixture of biological and social influences
-factors that influence food choices/intake
-**utilize your text and personal experiences to develop examples of some of the following food behavior sources**
-food flavor, texture and ______________
-childhood (early) experiences
-routines and habits
-advertisement/media
-restaurant dining
-convenience and availability; social changes
-income/economics
-nutrition
-health related food choices
-educational status and nutritional knowledge
-others
-peer/family influences (social network of family and friends)
-ethnic identity (food customs and culture)
-education and nutritional knowledge
-occupation
-rural-urban residence
-current health status and health beliefs
-nutritional or religious beliefs
-emotional comfort (psychological needs)
-fat, fiber and water content of foods
-North Americans probably respond more to external, appetite-related forces than to hunger-related ones in choosing when and what to eat
C. Why Are You So Hungry?
-hunger vs. appetite
-hunger is a ___________, biological (internal) drive to find and eat food
-as foods are digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine, these organs send signals to the liver and brain to reduce food intake
-appetite is a ______________ (exernal) drive encouraging us to find and eat food
-affected by external food choice mechanisms
-environmental/psychological factors
-social customs
-time of day/night
-smell and sight
-satiety
-state or feeling of satisfaction
-temporarily halting our desire to continue eating
-the hypothalamus
-contains both feeding and satiety centers
-macronutrient content in the blood stimulates these centers
-hormones affect satiety
-hormones are chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream
-control the actions of other cells
-examples of hormones that increase hunger
-endorphins
-reduce pain; influence mood

-natural tranquilizers that may be involved in the feeding response
-ghrelin
-produced by the stomach
-stimulates the hunger center; turns off the satiety center
-neuropeptide Y
-produced in the hypothalamus
-is inhibited by the hormone leptin
-examples of hormones that increase satiety
-leptin
-produced by adipose tissue
-stimulates the satiety center; turns off the hunger center
-long-term regulation of fat mass
-involved in insulin release
-cholecystokinin
-promotes the release of pancreatic enzymes from the pancreas
-promotes the release of bile from the gallbladder
-hunger regulation
-serotonin
-neurotransmitter
-produced from tryptophan (an amino acid)
-decreases the desire to eat carbohydrates
-induces sleep
1.2 How Is Nutrition Connected To Good Health
A. What is Nutrition?
-the science that links food to health and _________
-includes processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports and excretes food substances
B. Nutrients Come From Food
1. Nutrients are chemical substances that are found in food
2. Functional categories of nutrients
-provide energy (kcal)
-promote _________, development and maintenance of a healthy body
-regulate chemical processes/functions in the body
3. Three characteristics for an essential nutrient (substance that, when left out of a diet, leads to signs of poor health)
-the specific biological function of the nutrient in the body must be identified
-omission of the essential nutrient leads to a decline in certain biological functions
-replacing the omitted nutrient prior to permanent damage should restore normal function
C. Why Study Nutrition?
-nutrition is a lifestyle factor that is a key to developing and maintaining an optimal state of health
-poor diet and sedentary lifestyles are risk factors for major chronic diseases
-cardiovascular disease (25% of total deaths in the United States)
-cancer (23% of total deaths in the United States)
-__________(cerebrovascular disease)
-hypertension (high blood pressure)
-diabetes
-nutrient deficiencies
-osteoporosis (calcium)
-rickets (vitamin D)
-scurvy (vitamin C)
-anemia (iron, vitamin B-12)
-some nutrient supplements may be toxic in excess
-Vitamin A
-too much alcohol
-cirrhosis of the liver
-accidental deaths/suicide

-obesity
-poor diet combined with lack of sufficient physical activity contributes to fatal cases of cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes
-obesity is considered as the second leading cause of preventable deaths in the United
States
-___________ is #1
-the increased interest in health, fitness and nutrition has been associated with long-term decreasing trends for heart disease, cancer and stroke
-mortality from heart disease has been declining since the 1980s
-additional assistance in reducing your risk of common health problems
-www.healthfinder.gov
-webmd.com
-www.nutrition.gov
1.3 What Are the Classes and Sources of Nutrients?
A. Macronutrient vs. Micronutrient
-macronutrients are needed in relatively large amounts in the diet
-include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and water
-micronutrients are needed in relatively small amounts in the diet
-include vitamins and minerals
B. Organic compounds vs. Inorganic substances
-organic compounds
-contains carbon atoms bonded to ____________ atoms in the chemical structure
-include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and vitamins
-inorganic substances
-lacks carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure
-includes minerals and water
C. Three functional categories for nutrients
-those that primarily provide us with calories to meet energy needs
-carbohydrates, lipids and protein
-those important for growth, development and maintenance
-those that act to keep body systems running efficiently
D. Six classes of nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
-composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and ____________
-major source of fuel/calories (4 kcal/gram)
-may be simple sugars (monosaccharides) like glucose and fructose (absorbed in the small intestine)
-glucose
-major source of calories/energy for cells in the body
-referred to as blood sugar
-two monosaccharides can join to form a disaccharide
-sucrose, lactose and maltose are examples
-may be __________ carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
-include starch and glycogen
-during digestion, complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars and absorbed by cells lining the small intestine
-some complex carbohydrates contribute to dietary fiber
-these carbohydrates are not digested in the stomach or small intestine
-add bulk to feces which are formed in the large intestine
2. Lipids
-fats and oils
-composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen but contain less oxygen than carbohydrates
-yield 9 kcals/gram of energy
-dissolve in organic solvents (ether and benzene) but not in water
-triglycerides
-composed of glycerol bonded to three fatty acid chains
-energy source; store energy

-fatty acids may be termed as saturated or unsaturated
-plant oils (corn and olive oil are examples) contain unsaturated fatty acids
-tend to be liquid at room temperature
-unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more carbon-carbon double bond
-animal fats contain saturated fatty acids
-tend to be ________ at room temperature
-saturated fats do not contain carbon-carbon double bonds
-examples include butter, lard (animal fats)
-tend to increase blood cholesterol levels
-increase risk for cardiovascular disease
-essential fatty acids
-must come from dietary sources; human body cannot produce
-some important functions
-help _________ blood pressure
-play a role in synthesis/repair of vital cell structures
-sources include canola or soybean oil or fatty fish (salmon/tuna) at least twice a week
3. Proteins
-structural building material of the body
-contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and _____________
-composed of building blocks called amino acids
-proteins have a variety of functions in the human body
-muscle contraction (actin and myosin)
-transport (hemoglobin)
-body defense (immunoglobulins)
-connective tissue (collagen and elastin)
-metabolic activity (enzymes)
-cell membrane (protein) channels and carriers
-provide ______ kcal/gram of energy
-the body uses little protein for the purpose of meeting daily calorie needs
-protein comes from a variety of plant and animal sources
-North Americans eat up to two times as much protein as the body needs to maintain health
-excess is used for calorie needs and carbohydrate production but can ultimately lead to the storage of fat
4. Vitamins
-provide no usable energy (calories)
-organic molecules that enable many chemical reactions to occur in the body (metabolism)
-13 vitamins
-fat soluble (A, D, E and K)
-sources include dairy products, nuts, seeds and oils
-are more likely to build-up in excess in the body
-these may lead to toxicities
-especially vitamin A
-________ soluble (B and C)
-sources include fruits and vegetables
-are more likely to be destroyed by cooking as compared to fat soluble
-are excreted from the body more readily than fat soluble
5. Minerals
-provide no energy (calories) directly
-simple inorganic substances; for the most part lack ________ atoms
-some examples include sodium, potassium, calcium and iron
-minerals are not destroyed by cooking but can be lost from food
-in food preparation, minerals can leech into water used for cooking and be lost
-major minerals and trace minerals
-trace minerals (daily dietary need is less than 100 milligrams)
-variety of functions including nervous system function, water balance, structural (skeletal) systems and many cellular processes

-may also function as electrolytes
-minerals that function based on their electrical charge when dissolved in water
-include sodium, potassium and chloride
6. Water
-does not provide energy
-functions
-solvent
-liquid substance in which other substances dissolve
-lubricant
-vehicle for transporting nutrients and wastes
-medium for _______________regulation and metabolic (chemical) reactions
-human body is ~60% water
-water consumption
-average male 13 cups/day; average female ___ cups/day
-water is also the major component of most foods
7. Other Important Components in Food
-phytochemicals
-especially in fruits and ______________
-can provide significant health benefits
-considerable research focuses on the role of phytochemicals in reducing the risk of certain diseases
-compounds present in blueberries and strawberries prevent the growth of certain cancer cells
-research suggests that their health benefits are best obtained through the consumption of whole foods
8. Sources of Nutrients
-nutrient amounts in different foods may vary greatly
-people consume varying quantities of nutrients
-nutrient composition of the body differs from the nutritional profiles of foods consumed
-body cells contain genetic information (genes) that directs growth, development and maintenance of the human body
-cells
-basic structure of plant and animal organization
-contain genetic material (_____) and systems for making energy yielding compounds -food provides cells with basic materials to function according to the directions supplied by the genetic material
1.4 What Are Your Sources Of Energy?
A. Calories
-amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water one degree Celsius
-calorie sources
-carbohydrates (4 kcal per gram)
-fat (____ kcal per gram)
-protein (4 kcal per gram)
-alcohol is also an energy source; 7 kcals/gram
-not considered an essential nutrient; has no required function
-the release of energy from the chemical bonds in carbohydrates, fat and protein is converted into other forms of energy (ATP) for body functions
-build new compounds
-perform ___________movements
-promote nerve transmissions
-maintain electrolyte (ion) balance within cells
-ions are charged particles
-ions have uneven numbers of protons and electrons
-positive ions have more protons than electrons
-sodium (Na+) or calcium (Ca+2)

-negative ions have more electrons than protons
-chloride (Cl-) or fluoride (F-)
-energy in food is often expressed in terms of __________ on food labels
-food energy is more conveniently expressed in terms of kilocalories
-1 kilocalorie equals 1000 calories
-amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1000 grams (1 liter) of water 1oC
-values on food labels in calories are actually kilocalories
-calorie is often used loosely to mean kilocalorie
-2500 calories on a food label is actually 2500 kcal
B. Calculating Calories
-4-9-4 estimates for the calorie content of carbohydrate, fat and protein help determine the calorie content of a food
-example
-Assume for a given day that you consumed 160 grams of carbohydrates, 70 grams of fat and 50 grams of protein. What was the total kcal intake for these nutrients for this day?
What percent of energy was derived from carbohydrates? What percent of energy was derived from fat? What percent of energy was derived from protein?
-solution
-Using the 4-9-4 estimates, the total kcal intake for these nutrients was 1470 kcal
-carbohydrate kcals: 160 grams of carbohydrates x 4 = 640 kcals
-fat kcals: 70 grams of fat x 9 = 630 kcals
-protein kcals: 50 grams of protein x 4 = 200 kcals
-The percent of energy derived from fat was 42.9%
-630 kcals from fat/1470 total kcals x 100 = 42.9%
-The percent of energy derived from carbohydrates was 43.5%
-640 kcals from carbohydrates/1470 total kcals x 100 = 43.5%
-The percent of energy derived from protein was 13.6%
-200 kcals from protein/1470 total kcals x 100 = 13.6%
C. Math Tools
There are several basic math concepts that would be beneficial for a nutrition course. For each concept, sample problems and answers are given so that your concept mastery can be evaluated.
I. Percentages
A. Definition
-part of 100
B. Calculation Examples
1. What is 25% of 1200?
1200 x 0.25 = 300
2. What percent of 28 is 4?
4/28 = 0.143 or 14.3% (0.143 x 100 = 14.3%)
C. Sample Problems
1. Mary ate a candy bar for lunch and noticed that it contained 280 calories. If 130 calories came from fat, what percent of the caloric intake was fat derived?
2. Bill is on a 2400 kcal diet. For breakfast one morning, he ate a raisin-cinnamon
English muffin that contained 139 kcal. What percent of his daily kcal did he consume at this meal?
D. Answers to Sample Problems
1. 46.4% of the caloric intake was fat derived.
2. 5.79% of his daily kcal was consumed.
II. Metric System
A. Definition
-standard of measurement

B. Common Base Values
-gram
-metric unit for mass or weight
-The bag of candy weighed 425 grams.
-liter
-metric unit for volume
-The store was selling 2 liter drinks for $1.69.
-meter
-metric unit for length
-The Christmas tree was ~2.3 meters tall.
C. Common Metric Prefixes and Values
-centi
-centi is a hundredth of a base value and is abbreviated c
-cg is centigram, cl is centiliter and cm is centimeter
-1 gram = 100 cg, 1 liter = 100 cl and 1 meter = 100 cm
-milli
-milli is a thousandth of a base value and is abbreviated m
-mg is milligram, ml is milliliter and mm is millimeter
-1 gram = 1000 mg, 1 liter = 1000 ml and 1 meter = 1000 mm
-kilo
-kilo is a thousand times a base value and is abbreviated k
-kg is kilogram, kl is kiloliter and km is kilometer
-1 gram = 0.001 kg, 1 liter = 0.001 kl and 1 meter = 0.001 km
-1000 grams = 1 kg, 1000 liters = 1 kl and 1000 meters = 1 km
-micro
-micro is a millionth of a base value and is abbreviated
- g is microgram, l is microliter and m is micrometer
-1 gram = 1,000,000 g, 1 liter = 1,000,000 l and 1 meter = 1,000,000 m
-1 mg = 1000 g
D. Common Conversions and Examples
1. Metric to Metric
-note on the following problems we are simply moving the decimal based on powers of 10
-milligrams to grams
-? milligrams = 2.5 grams
-? milligrams = 2.5 grams (1000 milligrams/1 gram)
= 2500 milligrams
-grams to milligrams
-? grams = 4500 milligrams
-? grams = 4500 milligrams (1 grams/1000 milligram)
= 4.5 grams
2. Standard (English) to Metric
-pound to kilogram
-2.2 lbs = 1 kilogram
-? kg = 150 lbs
-? kg = 150 lbs (1kg/2.2 lbs)
= 68.2 kg
-inch to centimeter
-1 inch = 2.54 cm
-? cm = 75 inches
-? cm = 75 inches (2.54 cm/1 inch)
= 190.5 cm

3. Sample Problems
a. Mary is 5 feet, 4 inches tall. How many cm tall is she? Can you convert cm to meters?
b. Mary weighs 50 kg. What is her weight in pounds?
4. Answers to Sample Problems
a. ? cm = 64 inches
? cm = 64 inches (2.54 cm/1 inch)
= 162.6 cm
? m = 162.6 cm
? m = 162.6 cm (1 m/100 cm)
= 1.626 or 1.63 m
b. ? lbs = 50 kg
? lbs = 50 kg (2.2 lbs/1 kg)
= 110 lbs
1.5 What Is the Current State of the North American Diet and Health?
A. Does Obesity Threaten Our Future?
-in 2010, ____% of US adults were overweight or obese
-in 2010, 33% of children and teens were overweight
-consequences
-obesity’s role in chronic illness
-health care expenses
-loss of productivity in the workplace
-from a nutrition perspective many Americans tend to eat too much (high calorie foods with low nutritional value) and do not engage in enough physical activity
B. Assessing the Current North American Diet
-the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences advocated 10% to 35% of calories come from protein, 45% to 65% of calories come from carbohydrates and 20% to 35% of calories come from fat
-protein
-10% to 35% is advocated
-animal sources provide ~67%; plant sources ~33% of protein for most North American diets -carbohydrates
-45% to ___% advocated
-50% from simple sugars; 50% from starches (pasta, bread, potatoes)
-lipids
-20% to 35% advocated
-60% from animal sources; 40% from plant sources
-assessing the current North American diet
-most North Americans eat a wide variety of foods
-often do not choose the right balance to meet nutritional needs
-recommend whole grains, fruits, vegetables, low-fat or fat-free milk or milk products and lean meats and other protein sources
-provide nutrients including the B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D , vitamin E, iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium, zinc, dietary fiber and phytonutrients
-multivitamin and mineral supplements are a strategy to help meet nutritional needs
-these are not a strategy to compensate for a poor diet
-attempt to balance caloric (energy) intake with energy expenditure
-decrease intakes of saturated fat, trans fat, total fat and cholesterol
-increase physical activity

-monitor total calorie intake
-monitor sodium (salt) intake
-Afro-Americans and Hispanics have a greater chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension)
-monitor alcohol intake
-alcohol also has a link to hypertension
-“fill ______your plate with fruits and vegetables” is promoted in the new USDA
MyPlate guidelines
-try to practice balance, moderation and variety in food selection
-Health Objectives for the United States for the Year 2020
-Healthy People 2020
-strategies to promote health and prevent __________
-goals
-attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death
-achieve health equity, eliminate disparities and improve health of all groups
-create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
-promote quality of life, healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages
-more information at www.HealthyPeople.gov
-Healthy People 2020 sets forth health objectives and outlines national standards
-to eliminate health disparities
-to improve access to health ___________ and quality health care
-strengthen public health services
-vision is for a society in which all people live long, healthy lives
-new features of Healthy People 2020
-focus on health equity and social determinants of health
-a move to an interactive, personalized website (www.HealthyPeople.gov)
-goals of Healthy People 2020
-attain high-quality healthy lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death
-achieve health equity, eliminate disparities and improve ________for all groups
-create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
-promote quality of life, healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages
- Healthy People 2020 includes a topic area (Nutrition and Weight Status) specific to nutrition
-a healthful diet helps reduce risks for many health conditions
-heart disease and high blood pressure
-diabetes
-osteoporosis
-cancer
-good nutrition for children because of its importance for growth and development
-promote health and reduce chronic disease risk
-consume a healthful diet
-achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
-increasing household food security and eliminating hunger
-healthful diet
-consume a ________ of nutrient-dense foods within and across the food groups
-fruits, vegetables and whole-grains
-low-fat or fat free milk or milk products
-lean meats and other protein sources
-limit intake of ______ fats, cholesterol added sugars, sodium (salt) and alcohol
-limiting the intake of calories to meet needs for calories
-Table 1-5 lists the Nutrition and Weight Status objectives of Healthy People 2020
-genomics
-nine of the ten leading causes of death have a strong _________ component

-genetic testing is becoming a valuable tool for improving diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases
1.6 What Can You Expect from Good Nutrition and a Healthy Lifestyle?
-when an obese or overweight person loses just 5% to 10% of body weight, the risks of numerous chronic diseases are greatly reduced
-the earlier (preferably in _____________) we develop lifestyle habits of good nutrition, regular physical activity and the avoidance of addictions to salt, fat, sweets, high-calorie foods and sedentary lifestyles, the better
-seek a lifestyle that will make gaining weight more difficult and maintaining a healthy weight easier
-as you enter the workforce, seek an employer who offers wellness programs
-live in a location that has opportunities for physical activity
-make a habit of shopping at grocery stores that offer a good selection of healthy foods
-choose restaurants that have healthy options on their menus
-individuals are still choosing foods with too many calories but other dietary habits are improving
-healthful choices with variety
-sales of fat-free and low-fat milk are increasing
-consumption of __________ vegetables rather than canned vegetables is on the rise
-greater efforts are needed to lower the intake animal fat and cholesterol and to improve variety in our diets
-Table 1-7 provides recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention
-diet
-consume enough essential nutrients
-consume dietary fiber (fruits and vegetables)
-moderate calorie/energy, cholesterol, solid fat, added sugars and alcohol intake
-regular physical activity
-reduce the risk of _________, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, bone loss, loss of muscle tone, premature aging and certain cancers
-lifestyle changes
-limit alcohol intake
-prevent liver disease and alcohol related accidents
-never start using tobacco products or stop using them completely
-no illicit drugs
-adequate fluid intake; adequate sleep
-reduce stress; have a positive outlook
-consultation with health care professionals on a regular basis
1.7 Nutrition and Your Health: Eating Well in College
A. Introduction
-young adulthood is a time when many health behaviors are formed and will likely persist throughout life
-unfortunately, many students fall short on servings of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, milk and meats
-increase in sweets, fats and possibly alcohol
B. Food Choices
-stressful situations at college can lead to poor health behaviors
-high-fat and high-calorie fast foods
-convenience items
-sugary, caffeinated beverages
-lack of physical activity
-college environment offers a variety of dining choices; try to make wise food choices
-eating allows social interactions
-easy to eat when you are not hungry
-easy to lose track of portion sizes and overeat
-food may become a source of comfort to a new/stressful place
C. Weight Control and the “Freshman Fifteen”
-typical weight gain of 6 to 9 pounds their first year away from home
-calorie intake does not increase significantly but increases in alcohol consumption and decreases in physical activity are key reasons for weight gain
-health benefits are associated with maintaining a healthy body weight

-risk of chronic diseases increase with increased weight gain
-behavioral research demonstrates setting small attainable goals in weight loss
-a healthy rate of weight loss is one to two pounds per _______
-body weight is a balance between calories in and calories burned
-one pound of weight loss requires a deficit of ~3500 kcal
-to lose one pound per week, decrease food intake and/or increase your exercise routine to shift the energy balance equation by 500 kcal/day
-five simple tips to avert the “freshman fifteen”
-eat breakfast (eat a breakfast containing a protein source, a source of whole grain and a fruit)
-plan ahead (to eat a balanced meal or snack every 3-4 hours)
-limit _______ calories (drink water instead of high-calorie soft drinks, fruit juice, alcohol or coffee)
-stock the fridge (utilize low-calorie nutritious snacks or fruit)
-__________ regularly (find a friend to workout with you)
D. Alcohol and Binge Drinking
-binge drinking
-consuming five or more drinks in a row for men
-consuming four or more drinks in a row for women
-each year, 1400 college students between the ages of 18 to 24 die from alcohol related unintentional injuries, including motor vehicle accidents
-other problems
-unsafe sex and its consequences
-long-term health problems
-suicides
-legal problems
-academic problems
-alcohol abuse and/or dependence
-alcohol consumption can contribute to weight gain
-if you chose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation
-warning signs and symptoms of alcohol poisoning
-semiconsciousness or unconsciousness
-slow respiration rate (___ or fewer breaths per minute)
-______, clammy, pale or bluish skin
-strong odor of alcohol
E. Eating Disorders
-as many as _____% of college students are at risk of developing an eating disorder
-disordered eating is a mild and short-term change in eating patterns
-typically occurs in response to life stress, a desire to change appearance or a bad habit
-may lead to eating disorders
-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder
-eating disorders do not arise from problems with food but rather from problems with self-esteem, control and abusive relationships
-eating disorders, if unchecked, can lead to serious adverse effects
-______ thinning
-gastrointestinal problems
-loss of menstrual periods
-kidney problems
-heart abnormalities
-death
F. Choosing a Vegetarian Lifestyle
-college students may experiment or adopt vegetarian eating patterns
-research points to plant-based diets for health benefits
-vegetarian diets require appropriate planning at all life stages
-vegetarians may be at risk for mineral or vitamin deficiencies
-fortified breakfast cereals can provide these nutrients
-for optimum health benefits with a vegetarian diet
-choose foods that are baked, steamed or stir-fried rather than deep-fried

-select whole grains rather than refined carbohydrates
-consume food fortified with vitamins and minerals
-even if not considering a vegetarian lifestyle, several plant-based meals per week can be beneficial
-help with weight control
-_______ intake
-phytochemical intake
G. Fuel for Competition: Student Athletes
-athletes must take care not to severely restrict calories
-could impact performance and health
-muscles
-need adequate carbohydrates for fuel
-need protein for growth and repair
-body needs fat as stored energy for use during exercise
-fluids are also essential for health and performance
-while water is adequate for events lasting less than 60 minutes, sports drinks are ideal for longer events
-supply carbohydrates to fuel fatigued muscles
-supply ___________ and fluid (lost during perspiration)
-supplements
-a balanced multivitamin and mineral supplement is adequate for most people
-the increased food intake required to meet energy demands of athletic training is usually sufficient to meet vitamin and mineral needs
-specific vitamin, mineral, amino acid or herbal supplements are not advised for athletic training
H. Tips for Eating Well on a College Student’s Budget
-prepaid campus meal plan offers food value and a variety of healthy foods
-packing lunches allows control of healthy food choices and can save money
-grocery stores
-never shop on an empty ___________
-grocery lists reduce impulse buys
-consider store brands over name brands
-certain canned or dry foods can be nutritious and have a long shelf life
-concentrates or powders for drinks are money savers as compared to vending machine containers or gallon jugs

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    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was one of the great feats of exploration in history - an inward voyage of discovery rather than an outward exploration of the planet or the cosmos; an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes - together known as the genome - of members of our species, Homo sapiens. The Human Genome Project was started in 1990 with the goal of sequencing and identifying all three billion chemical units in the human genetic instruction set, finding the genetic…

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    The Human Genome Project

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    Introduction to Literature February 8, 2013 THE Human Genome Project Today I will be defining the Human Genome project. This is a project to study, research, implement, and produce a DNA sequence of the Human Genome System. The human genome project is working to try and find a way to see what every gene in the human body actually does. They have already done a DNA sequence of human genes. They discovered the human body has more proteins than they first thought; now they have to see what each…

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    The Human Genome Project

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    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project undertaken with a goal to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms. The project began in 1990 and, by some definitions, it was completed in 2003. It was one of the biggest investigational projects in the history of science. The mapping of the human genes was an important step in the development of medicines and other aspects of health care. Most of the…

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    The Human Genome Project

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    The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project was established to identify the genes that make us who we are. It is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analysing the structure and to identify all the approximate 20,000-25,000 genes of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome and improve tools for data analysis…

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    Human Genome Essay

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    Human Genome Project The Human Genome controls from the eye and skin color to the potential for developing disease. Humans display remarkable and endless variety which is controlled by the Human Genome. Human Genome is the complete “instruction manual” found in the nucleus of all cells that is used to define a specific organism. Decoding and understanding these instructions is the goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP). This project began in 1990, which was coordinated by the United States department…

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    The Diary of the Human Genome and Its Breakthrough What is our human genome? Our human genome is what makes us who we are. Many people might find its role in our human body as a miniscule one, but it is rather one of a great role consisting of all the genetic information in a single human being. What makes the human genome unique and amazing is its function and structure. The human genome also has its complications, these are genetic mutations creating genetic disorders that affect millions. With…

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    The Human Genome Project

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    The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information gathered by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the twenty-first century and will be of…

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    The Human Genome Project

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    PM 595 Project Risk Management Course Project The Human Genome Project Submitted by Rodney A. Lee Instructor – Keith Bluestein August 15, 2011 Table of Content Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….3 The Human Genome Project ……………………………………………………………..4 Decision Tree ……………………………………………………………………………..5 Decision Tree 1 ……………………………………………………………………...6 Risk Identification …………………………………………………………………...........6 Decision Tree 2 ………………………………………………………………………

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    About the Human Genome

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    About the human genome Today, I’d like to talk about the human genome. What is the genome? According to scientists, all of our characteristics are determined by our genes. And the genome is a complete set of genes. So I think it is useful to know something more about the genome. Genetic science has developed rapidly in recent decades. The most important result is the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. All the secrets of life are hidden in them. Let’s have a look at this picture.…

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    Human Genome Project

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    genetic disorders, genes, and proteins. To view the chromosomes of the Human Genome Landmarks poster online, order your free copy of the poster, or download additional copies of this workbook, go to the Gene Gateway website: genomics.energy.gov/genegateway/ Using hereditary hemochromatosis as a model, access a variety…

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