Effects of Smoking
a) Relevance of research
b) Effects of smoking
c) Smoking in South African community
a) Scientific report
iv) Tables and graphs of results
a) Graphs of results from surveys
b) Discussion of surveys and results
5) Smoking laws in South Africa
7) Reference list
Relevance of project
The reason I am doing this project is to see what effects smoking has on your body and to conduct research to prove what effects smoking have on your body. The purpose of this research task is to examine the effects of smoking on resting heart rat4 and on heart rate responses during and after exercise Effects of smoking:
When you smoke, the toxins from cigarette smoke enter your blood. The toxins in your blood then: •Make your blood thicker
•Increase your blood pressure and heart rate
•Narrow your arteries
This increases the chance of your arteries narrowing and clots forming, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. Heart
Smoking damages your heart and your blood circulation, increasing the risk of conditions such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (damaged blood vessels) and cerebrovascular disease (damaged arteries that supply blood to your brain). Carbon monoxide from the smoke and nicotine both put a strain on the heart by making it work faster. They also increase your risk of blood clots. Other chemicals in cigarette smoke damage the lining of your coronary arteries, leading to furring of the arteries. In fact, smoking doubles your risk of having a heart attack, and if you smoke you have twice the risk of dying from coronary heart disease than lifetime non-smokers.
Smokers have an increased chance of getting stomach cancer or ulcers. Smoking can weaken the muscle that controls the lower end of your oesophagus and allow acid from the stomach to travel in the wrong direction back up your oesophagus, a process known as reflux. Smoking is a significant risk factor for developing kidney cancer, and the more you smoke the greater the risk. Skin
Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen that gets to your skin. This means that if you smoke, your skin ages more quickly and looks grey and dull. The toxins in your body also cause cellulite. Smoking prematurely ages your skin by between 10 and 20 years, and makes it more likely you'll get wrinkles, especially around the eyes and mouth.
If you smoke, you are more likely to have a stroke than someone who doesn't smoke. Smoking increases your risk of having a stroke by at least 50%, which can cause brain damage and death. And, by smoking, you double your risk of dying from a stroke. One way that smoking can increase your risk of a stroke is by increasing your chances of developing a brain aneurysm.
Your lungs can be very badly affected by smoking. Coughs, colds, wheezing and asthma are just the start. Smoking can cause fatal diseases such as pneumonia, emphysema and lung cancer. Smoking causes 84% of deaths from lung cancer and 83% of deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease, including bronchitis.
Mouth and throat
Smoking causes bad breath and stained teeth, and can also cause gum disease and damage your sense of taste. The most serious damage smoking causes in your mouth and throat is an increased risk of cancer in your lips, tongue, throat, voice box and oesophagus. More than 93% of throat cancers are caused by smoking. Reproduction and fertility
Smoking can cause male impotence, it can also damage sperm, reduce sperm count and cause testicular cancer. Men who smoke have a lower sperm count than those who are non-smokers. For women, smoking can reduce fertility. One study found that the fertility of smoking women was 72% that of...
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