Background of the Study
Sampalok, being of prehistoric introduction, is planted throughout the settled areas of the Philippines and is cultivated for its many uses. The plant is a large tree from 12 to 25 meters in height. The pods are oblong, thickened, and 6 to 15 centimetres by 2 to 3 centimeters, slightly compressed, and provided with a thin, crustaceous epicarp and a pulpy, acid, edible mesocarp. The young leaves flowers, leaves, and young pods are being used by people for seasoning foods like “sinigang”. The pulp surrounding the seeds, called “malasebo” is eaten outright either with or without salt (E. Quisumbing, 1951). Sampalok pulp contains Pectin which can be useful in our society and possibly be extracted. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. The main use for pectin (vegetable agglutinate) is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food.
On this account, the researcher would like to experiment on tamarind pods, which has Pectin content and to extract it for further use, which can help in the food industry here in our country. Statement of the Problem
The study aims to extract Pectin from Sampalok (Tamarindus indica) pods. Specifically to answer, the following questions:
* How can Pectin be extracted from Sampalok?
* How much Pectin can be extracted from the Tamarind fruit? * What general characteristics did the Pectin from the Tamarind fruit exhibit? Hypotheses
* Pectin cannot be extracted from Tamarind.
* No amount of Pectin can be extracted from the Tamarind. * The tamarind fruit did not exhibit characteristics of Pectin. Significance of the Study
This study will help reduce the country’s importation of pectin from other countries. . Based from Government's statistical data, our country had imported about 93,150 kilos of pectin in 2008. The cost incurred in importing Pectin is about P27, 000 per kilo. Finding an alternative source of pectin from locally grown plants like tamarind will help reduce the country’s dependence on pectin importation as well as help the local economy. If proven that pectin can be commercially extracted from tamarind then the local populace will be encouraged to cultivate tamarind as extra income.
Scope and Limitations
In this study, the researcher is only limited to use the tamarind pulp surrounding the seeds, called “malasebo” Tamarind pulp is the main independent variable in the extraction of pectin except for the materials needed for the extraction process. This project is limited only in extracting pectin from tamarind pulp.
Review of Related Literature
Pectin is defined as complex mixtures of polysaccharides that make up approximately one third of the cell-wall dry substance of most types of plants (Van Buren, 1991). The function of pectin in plants is to contribute structural integrity to the cell wall and adhesion between cells.
The methods of extraction will vary based on the actual makeup for each particular plant type. For example, protopectins are brought into solution by hot dilute acids. The general makeup of the pectin content varies with ripening of the plant and it is fairly easily brought into solution depending on the plant type (Van Buren, 1991). Commercial pectin extraction is mainly from citrus peel and apple pomace, but several other sources exist such as sugar beets and sunflower heads.
Because it is a natural additive for foods, pectin is being considered for a number of applications beyond the traditional jams and jellies. Pectin is now used as thickeners, water binders, and stabilizers. It is used in yogurts and pastry glazes and as a stabilizer in drinkable yogurts and blends of milk and fruit juices (May, 1990). Pectin is also being used as a texturizing fat replacer to mimic the mouth-feel of lipids in low-calorie foods and...
Bibliography: Book Sources:
* Quisumbing, E. (1951) Philippine Medicinal Plants. Genus TAMARINDUS Linnaeus pp.
* Srivastava, P. & Malviya, R. (2011) Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 2 (1) Sources of pectin, extraction and its applications in pharmaceutical industry. pp. 10-18
* May, C. D. Handbook of Hydrocolloids pp. 169-188
* Huang, J. M. G. Improved method for the extraction of Pectin, PO Box 4200 Highstown, New Jersey 08520
I would like to thank God, for His guidance throughout this investigatory project. To my parents, for their utmost support in the making of this research. I would also like to acknowledge my aunt, for sharing her knowledge and ideas about this project. I would also like o thank my classmates and teachers who helped throughout this whole project. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge our research adviser, Ma’am Juliet Herreria for her guidance and for the sharing of new techniques and ideas for a better research project.
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