Mapping an Individual and Collective Regret in Organizational Life Introduction- The research aims at finding the various career and organizational regrets that an employee has and grouping them together under clusters which are more familiar in the organizational behavior constructs. Once the more common regrets are identified the research will aim to find out the antecedents (factors) causing those regrets and possible outcomes of those regrets. However organizational behavior as a study proposes various models and theories to reconcile the factors causing the regrets and suggests possible solutions to overcome them. We will do a study of those models and apply them in the current context to identify the regrets, their possible causes and solutions. Evaluation of existing literature
Psychological Empowerment in Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation- This model tries to explain the feeling of empowerment from an employee’s context. Empowerment according to the model is increased motivation towards his task with which is manifested through set of four intrinsic variables – meaning, competence, self- determination and impact. Meaning- It means understanding of goals or tasks assigned to an individual in relation to his own ideals and standards. It basically is involves fit between the goals and tasks and the values and beliefs of an individual. Competence- It basically means having the belief in one’s own capabilities and skills to complete the tasks given. Self-Determination- It means freedom or autonomy of starting and continuing and task. Impact- It means the degree to which an individual can influence the decisions in an organization at different levels i.e. strategic, administrative and operational outcomes. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory- According to this theory the leaders, given the time pressure they have develop special relationships with some members amongst his followers. These followers form an in-group with the leader and enjoy special attention and privilege given to them by the leader. However those in the out-group are frequently ignored and punished. The in-group members have personality traits and demographic characteristics which are similar to the leaders and are usually highly competent. Research to the LMX theory is positive and there is substantial evidence which proves that leaders do differentiate among their followers and the in-group members enjoy better appraisals and participate in “citizenship” behavior at work and report greater satisfaction with their leaders. Perceived Organizational Support - The degree to which employees believe that their organization care for them and value their contribution. It is generally thought as the positive reciprocation of the organization for the efforts its employees put and rewarding them for that. For employees, the organization serves as an important source of socio-emotional resources, such as respect and caring, and tangible benefits, such as wages and medical benefits. Being regarded highly by the organization, the recognition for the effort of the employee enhances their self-esteem and affiliation. Rewards and recognition of the efforts is also motivation for the employee who get a feeling that the increased efforts will be noticed and suitably rewarded in future as well .Employees therefore take an active interest in the work assigned to them.POS also generate an obligation to the organization to contribute more and help organization meet its goals. Reward Management- In the words of Armstrong and Murlis- “Reward Management is concerned with the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies that aim to reward people fairly, equitably and consistently in accordance with their value to the organization”. By the proper Reward Management in place the organization aims at supporting the organization’s strategy, motivating employees, Internal & external equity, Strengthening psychological contract, making employees...
Bibliography: 1. Academy of management Journal-1995, Vol.38, No-5, 1442-1465, Psychological Empowerment In The WorkPlace: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation – Gretchen M.Spreitzer
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