ADVANCED PLACEMENT UNITED STATES HISTORY SUMMER 2013 READING ASSIGNMENT CHAPTER 1: "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress" (pp. 1-11) 1. According to Zinn, what is his main purpose for writing A People's History of the United States? To tell history from the viewpoint of the victims and not overlooking what the country has done to become what they are today. It includes the cruelty and hardships the people had to go through. 2. What is Zinn's thesis for pages 1-11?
He will be as blunt as he can to show what history has hidden from people. To tell history from the victim's point of view, thus the title, a people's history. 3. According to Zinn, how is Columbus portrayed in traditional history books? He is portrayed as a hero for discovering the United States. They barely mention in detail what happened to the Indians and what they had to go through,. All that matters is that he discovered the land that is called America now. They justify what was done. 4. Why does Zinn dispute Henry's Kissinger's statement: "History is the memory of states?" Kissinger's statement came from a the leaders' point of view. The people who won. Zinn wants to show history through the minds of the nations and communities that lost. If history is seen through the state's point of view, it is neglecting the viewpoint of the victims. 5. What is Zinn's basic criticism of historian Samuel Eliot Morison's book, Christopher Columbus, Mariner? Columbus used Christ as an excuse to continue his cruelty towards the Natives. The only thing that was pure about him was his seamanship. 6. What major issues does Bartolome de las Casas bring up regarding Spanish expeditions in the Caribbean? He describes what the Spanish expeditions are doing to the Native Americans who live in the area. He also wrote about how the Natives used to live before the Spanish came. He describes their cruelty and how inhumane it is. 7. Identify one early and one subsequent motive that drove Columbus to oppress indigenous peoples. He wanted slaves and gold to keep his promise to the King and Queen of Spain because they promised him 10% of their profits, govern the land he found, and gain the title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea." 8. What was the ultimate fate of the Arawak Indians?
They were taken prisoner, slaved, killed, or raped. They tried to resist by fighting, but they couldn't stand up to the Spanish military, so they started mass suicides by eating cassava poison. It led to severe depopulation because the mothers would kill their child to save them from the Spaniards. Their overall population went from the thousands, to mere hundreds. Chapter 1: "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress" (pp. 2-22) 1. Compare the strategies and motives underlying the conquest of the Aztecs by Cortez and the conquest of the Incas by Pizzaro. Cortez tricked the Aztecs into believing he was their long lost God, Quetzalcoatl, into giving him mountains of gold and silver. Pizzaro did something similar, and for the same reasons, for gold, silver, and slaves to finance their country. 2. What were the major causes of war between the Powhatans and the English settlers? One of the causes was when the settlers killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned down their houses, stole their food, and killed the tribe queen and her kids. Their only reason was because the Indians took in starving settlers who stayed with the Indians by choice. They finally declared war when the Indians decided to wipe out the growing English settlers, killing 347 of them. 3. Discuss the significance of Powhatan's statement, "Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love?" Powhatan's statement meant that he didn't want this war, he wanted a quiet and peaceful life with his family. He is willing to give the settlers what they want, and provide them food, in exchange for a peaceful life. 4. Explain Governor John Winthrop's legal and biblical justification for seizing Indian land. The Indians only had a natural...
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