Topics: Posttraumatic stress disorder, Scientific method, Prolonged exposure therapy Pages: 7 (2340 words) Published: April 10, 2014

i. Importance of Study
Found in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, a group of Norwegian psychologists conducted an observational longitudinal study to discover whether or not there is a relationship because Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms (PTSD). Mette Senneseth, Kjersti Alsaker & Gerd Karin Natvig, conducted this study. According to the journal, the aim of the study was to examine HRQoL and PTSD symptoms in the people that attend Accident and Emergency departments (A&E), due to the fact that they suffer from some type of psychosocial crisis (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). Hereafter, this is referred to as Research 1. The study done in Research 1 revealed that there has been an interest in researching one’s quality of life, and how it correlates with one’s health. The term HRQoL refers to the “effects of health, illness and treatment on QoL” (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). There have been a number of studies that suggest that traumatic life events, including, but not limited to, sexual assault and military combat, have a negative effect on HRQoL. Additionally, poor HRQoL is not only associated with PTSD symptoms, but they are related to differences and modification in HRQoL, and there is a negative correlation between the two (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). The researchers hypothesized that people who seek help at A&E, suffering from such psychosocial calamites, have lower HRQoL than the general population of Norway at the time of the study, and that the participants will have improved HRQoL after two months (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). In addition, a second hypothesis predicts that participants who have high levels of PTSD symptoms at the time of the study will have reduced symptoms after the conclusion of the study at two months. Lastly, the third hypothesis wraps the study up by predicating that high levels of PTSD symptoms are associated to low HRQoL scores in a follow-up experiment (Alasker et al., 2011, 403). Found in the Cyber-psychology, Behavior and Social Networking Journal, a group of researchers conducted a study to compare the effects of VR-graded exposure therapy (VR-GET) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on people suffering from combat related PTSD (McLay et al. 2011, 223). Robert Mclay, Dennis Wood, Jennifer Webb-Murphy, James Spira, Mark Miederholf, Jeffery Pyne and Brenda Wiederhold conducted this study. Hereafter, this is referred to as Research 2. The doctors responsible for conducting this study found that there has only been one “randomized, controlled proof-of-concept” study that was specifically designed for Active Duty Service Members suffering from PTSD (McLay et al. 2011, 223). Also, the doctors wanted to extend the “already found research gathered” from victims of PTSD, and take the study one step further. The researchers of Research 2 hypothesized that “patients with combat-related PTSD would be more likely to experience clinically significant improvements in VR-GET than treatment as usual” (McLay et al. 2011, 224). VR-GET is a virtual reality stimulation that combines graded virtual reality exposure with “physiologic monitoring and skills training” (McLay et al. 2011, 224). Also, VR-GET promotes engagement with, rather than escaping the events and experiences that prompt a traumatic episode. II. METHODS

In regards to Research 1, the participants in the study had to meet three criteria before they were able to participate. During the recruitment period, the researchers found participants who were attending the A&E due to a “psychosocial crisis and who consulted a psychiatric nurse,” were 18 years of age or older, and those who were able to both read and understand Norwegian (Alasker et al. 2011, 404). A total of 113 were asked to participate in the study. Of those 113 people selected, 99 of the people participated in the baseline study, and 41 participated in both the baseline study, and the follow-up study....

Cited: Mette Senneseth, Kjersti Alsaker, Gerd Karin Natvig. (2011). Health-related Quality of Life and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Accident and Emergency Attenders Suffering From Psychosocial Crises: a Longitudinal Study, Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(2), 402-414. Retrieved from
Robert N. Mclay, Dennis P. Wood, Jennifer A. Webb-Murphy, James L. Spira, Mark D. Wiederhold, Jeffery M. Pyne, Brenda K. Wiederhold. (2011). A Randomized, Control Trial of Virtual Reality-Graded Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Active Duty Service Members with Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking Volume 14, Issue 4. Retrieved from
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