INTRODUCTION ON VARIOUS INVESTMENT AVENUES
The dictionary meaning of investment is to commit money in order to earn a financial return or to make use of the money for future benefits or advantages. People commit money to investments with an expectation to increase their future wealth by investing money to spend in future years. For example, if you invest Rs. 1000 today and earn 10 %over the next year, you will have Rs.1100 one year from today.
An investment can be described as perfect if it satisfies all the needs of all investors. So, the starting point in searching for the perfect investment would be to examine investor needs. If all those needs are met by the investment, then that investment can be termed the perfect investment. Most investors and advisors spend a great deal of time understanding the merits of the thousands of investments available in India. Little time, however, is spent understanding the needs of the investor and ensuring that the most appropriate investments are selected for him.
The Investment Needs of an Investor
By and large, most investors have eight common needs from their investments: 1. Security of Original Capital;
2. Wealth Accumulation
3. Comfort Factor;
4. Tax Efficiency;
5. Life Cover;
8. Ease of Withdrawal;
Types of investment -
Fixed Deposits – They cover the fixed deposits of varied tenors offered by the commercial banks and other non-banking financial institutions. These are generally a low risk prepositions as the commercial banks are believed to return the amount due without default. By and large these FDs are the preferred choice of risk-averse Indian investors who rate safety of capital & ease of investment above all parameters. Largely, these investments earn a marginal rate of return of 6-8% per annum.
Government Bonds – The Central and State Governments raise money from the market through a variety of Small Saving Schemes like national saving certificates, Kisan Vikas Patra, Post Office Deposits, Provident Funds, etc. These schemes are risk free as the government does not default in payments. But the interest rates offered by them are in the range of 7% - 9%.
Money-back insurance - Insurance in India is mostly sold and bought as investment products. They are preferred because of their add-on benefits like financial life-cover, tax-savings and satisfactory returns. Even if one does not manage to save money and invest regularly in financial instruments, with insurance, the policyholder has no choice. If he does not pay his premiums on time, his insurance cover will lapse. Money-back Insurance schemes are used as investment avenues as they offer partial cash-back at certain intervals. This money can be utilized for children’s education, marriage, etc.
Endowment Insurance – These policies are term policies. Investors have to pay the premiums for a particular term, and at maturity the accrued bonus and other benefits are returned to the policyholder if he survives at maturity.
Bullion Market – Precious metals like gold and silver had been a safe heaven for Indian investors since ages. Besides jewellery these metals are used for investment purposes also. Since last 1 year, both Gold and Silver have highly appreciated in value both in the domestic as well as the international markets. In addition to its attributes as a store of value, the case for investing in gold revolves around the role it can play as a portfolio diversifier.
Stock Market – Indian stock markets particularly the BSE and the NSE, had been a preferred destination not only for the Indian investors but also for the Foreign investors. Although Indian Markets had been through tough times due to various scams, but history shows that they recovered very fast. Many types of scrip had been value creators for the investors. People have earned fortunes from the stock markets, but...
Bibliography: A. Books
1) Kothari C.R. (1990) ‘Research Methodology’, Second Edition,
1. Business line
2. Economic Times
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