Toyota Production System (TPS)
Toyota Production System
The practical expression of Toyota's people and customer-oriented philosophy is known as the Toyota Production System (TPS). This is not a rigid company-imposed procedure but a set of principles that have been proven in day-to-day practice over many years. Many of these ideas have been adopted and imitated all over the world. TPS has three desired outcomes:
* To provide the customer with the highest quality vehicles, at lowest possible cost, in a timely manner with the shortest possible lead times. * To provide members with work satisfaction, job security and fair treatment. * It gives the company flexibility to respond to the market, achieve profit through cost reduction activities and long-term prosperity. TPS strives for the absolute elimination of waste, overburden and unevenness in all areas to allow members to work smoothly and efficiently. The foundations of TPS are built on standardisation to ensure a safe method of operation and a consistent approach to quality. Toyota members seek to continually improve their standard processes and procedures in order to ensure maximum quality, improve efficiency and eliminate waste. This is known as kaizen and is applied to every sphere of the company's activities.
Toyota Production System Basics
2. Just in Time Manufacturing
3.Kaizen - Continuous Improvement
4. Jidoka or Autonomation
5. Total Productive Maintenance
Using standard operating charts are also more efficient and effective than having a supervisor teach from personal experience. According to Shigeo Shingo, the Toyota Production System trains new employees to work independently in three days. Standard charts make this possible. "This approach also increases learning efficiency because the workers keep referring to the standard operating charts until they are familiar with the techniques." Shigeo Shingo.
Determining a Method
According to Kaoru Ishikawa, "A method to be established must be useful to everyone and free of difficulty. It has to be standardized for that reason. An individual may choose to do things his own idiosyncratic way, and it may prove to be the best method for him. But an organization cannot rely on a method thus derived. Even if it were a superior technique, it would still remain the specialty of one individual and could not be adopted as the technology of the company or workplace." Purpose of Standardization: Maximize efficiency, minimize waste. There are three areas to took at:
1. Takt time: the amount of time which is given job is to be completed 2. Work sequence: the step by step order in which each processing assembly operation is to be performed. 3. Standard in Process Stock: the number of parts that should be in process at any given time. Establish the best work sequence for each process to achieve your ideal takt time and standard in process stock. How to Establish a Standard
1. Collect data to find the most efficient work sequence.
2. Practice the sequence up to ten times. If employees can repeat it exactly and consistently, then it is a viable sequence. 3. Create a work standard to help employees repeat the optimum work sequence.
Just In Time Manufacturing
Make or convey only what is needed, when it is needed, in the amount needed = No accumulation. This is the Toyota Production System`s law of just In time manufacturing. Basic Principles
1. Continuous Flow Processing
2. Takt time (cycle time) based on necessary quantities
3. Pull system (following process withdrawals necessary amount of parts) To efficiently produce products in large volumes, it is necessary to have a complicated and precise plan for parts procurement and production. If we can respond to this production plan by supply just-in-time we can eliminate waste and inconsistencies. This will result in improved lean production.
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