Problem Solving

Topics: Problem solving, How to Solve It, Creative Problem Solving Process Pages: 7 (2117 words) Published: April 15, 2013
Despite what folks accomplish as a profession or where they exist, most folks use the majority of their waking hours, at a workplace or at home, tackling situations. Most situations people challenge are little, some are substantial and complex, yet they need to be settled in a tasteful manner. There are a few definitions of a situation or how one individual may distinguish a situation. A situation is a chance for development. A situation may be a true break, the stroke of fortunes, chance thumping, an opportunity to get out of the groove of the ordinary and greatly improve the situation. A situation is the contrast between an individual present state and an individual objective state. A situation can come about because of revamped learning or supposing. At the point that a person knows where they are and where they need to be, they have a situation to fathom in getting to their objective. A situation comes about because of the acknowledgment of a present defective and the credence in the probability of a preferred fate. The function of this paper will explain the different approaches to the study of problem-solving. Explain the role of insight and creativity in the problem solving process, analyze the dynamics of problem representation and problem solution and analyze the function of reasoning, judgment, and decision making in the problem-solving process. Approaches to the Study of Problem-Solving

The three main approaches to problem-solving are behaviorism, gestalt, and cognitive. Behaviorism focuses on how a person learns to solve a problem. Robinson-Riegler and Robinson-Riegler (2008) discuss a study conducted by E.L. Thorndike on problem-solving. Thorndike used cats and a puzzle box to explain his view on the process of problem-solving and how a problem-solving can be learned. In Thorndike's puzzle box a cat would be enclosed in the box. Within the box there was a petal that cat could step on that was connected to wires that opened the door. When Thorndike first put the cat in the box the cat would meow and scratch at the box. After many trails and errors that cat learned to step on the petal to open the door to the box. Thorndike used this demonstration to show how problems solving can be learned through law and effect (Ciccarelli.S, & Meyer, 2006). The law and effect is a term Thorndike brought forth to explain how if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). The Gestalt approach to problem-solving believes that problem-solving is process learning through trail and errors just like the behaviorist approach. The Gestalt approach believes the mind has a tendency to organize needed incoming information and the mind reconstructs the problem elements and finds a solution (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). Robinson-Riegler and Robinson-Riegler (2008) discuss the experiment Wolfgang Kohle conducted on apes. Kohler put an ape in a pen with some objects, such as a few crates and suspended a banana from the ceiling. Kohler observed the ape and noticed the ape would sit and look at the banana and seem to be wondering how to solve the problem. The ape as if he realized what he had to do would jump up and push the crate in the spot under the banana, and the ape would climb onto the carte and grab the banana (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). This experiment brought forth the main key insight to the Gestalt approach. Insight is the sudden and successful approach to problem-solving (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). The cognitive approach to problem-solving focuses on problem-solving along with information of processing and Ciccarelli and Meyer (2006) suggest the cognitive approach of problem-solving can be seen in algorithms and heuristic. Algorithms are specific step by step procedures for solving a certain type of problem. For instance, a librarian would use an algorithm to organize books in...

References: Ciccarelli.S, & Meyer, G. (2006) Psychology my psychlab edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall.
Helie, S., & Sun, R. (2010). Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A unified theory
and a connectionist model. Psychological Review, 117(3), 994-1024
Robinson-Riegler, G., & Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Applying the science of the mind (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon
Spaulding, K. (2008). Judgment and problem solving. Drawing conclusion and making decisions. Retried from solving-3smazt4fj02nv-34/
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