Thinking (cognition) - is mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
Mental images- are mental representation that stand for objects or events and have a picture like quality.
Concepts- are ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities.
Superordinate concepts- the most general form of a type of concepts, such as “animal” or “fruit”; superordinate refers to highest in statue or standing.
Basic level type- an example of a type of concepts around which similar concepts are organized, such as “dog,” “cat” or “pear.”
Subordinate concept- is the most specific category of a concept, such as one’s pet dog or a pair in one’s hand, subordinate refers to lowest in statue or standing.
Formal concepts- are concepts that are defined by specific rules or features.
Natural concepts- are concepts people form as a result of their experience in the real world.
Prototype- is an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.
Problem solving- is the process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behavior in certain ways.
Trial and error (mechanical solution) - is the problem- solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is fined.
Algorithms- are a very specific, step-by-step procedure for solving certain types of problems.
Heuristic- is an educated guess based on prior experiences that help narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also knows as a “rule of thumb”.
Representative heuristic- is an assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category are also a member of that category.
Availability heuristic- is an estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how