SECTION – A
4. Acceptance Theory
6. Master Chart
7. Downward Communication
8. Social Needs
9. Staffing Defined
1. What do you understand by Maslow’s Theory of Motivation?
According to “Abraham Maslow” the behaviour of an individual at a particular moment is usually determined by his strongest need. Needs have a certain priority or hierarchy. As the more basic needs are satisfied an individual seeks to satisfy the higher needs. If his basic needs are not met, efforts to satisfy the higher needs should be postponed. Once a need is satisfied it loses its capacity to induce the man to work. Only unsatisfied needs or fresh needs can motivate persons to work.
As soon as the lower level needs are satisfied. Those on the next higher level emerge. Thus, he considered an individual’s motivation behaviour as a predetermined order of needs. According to Maslow, the basic human needs are set in a hierarchy as follows: 1. Physiological Needs.
2. Security and safety Needs
3. Social Needs
4. Esteem or ego needs
5. Self – actualization needs.
2. Define Management By Objectives.
According to John Humble - Management By Objectives or “MBO is a dynamic system which integrates the company’s need to achieve its goals for profit and growth, with the manager’s need to contribute and develop himself.” In other words, MBO is a dynamic system of management; it recognizes the need of the manager to achieve and to grow on the job and it integrates the individual needs and the organisational needs.
George Oriorne - “MBO is a system wherein the superior and the subordinate manager of an organisation jointly define its common goals, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.” According to Reddin, the MBO system means:
Each manager identifies his key effectiveness areas where he should show results. Establishment of objectives in such effectiveness areas.
Such objectives should be quantified and time bound.
Horizontal alignment and vertical linking of such objectives in the organisation. Individual objectives should be related to and be part of the total organisation plan.
3. Differentiate between co – ordination and co – operation.
The difference between co-ordination and co-operation is delineated. The concept of co-ordination is much broader than that of co-operation. a) Co-ordination is an orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common objectives. It means bringing together the efforts of different components of the organisation in order to give them a unity of process. But cooperation denotes the collective efforts by the people working in the organisation voluntarily to accomplish a particular purpose. b) Co-ordination is a deliberate effort by the management for the achievement of certain goals. It is true that existence of cooperation among the members of a group facilitates co-ordination. c) But co-ordination does not originate from the voluntary efforts of the group members. It has to be achieved by the conscious efforts of the management. Effective co-ordination cannot be achieved without the actual cooperation of the group members. Co-ordination without cooperation and cooperation without co-ordination are fatal to the enterprise. As a matter of fact, cooperation without co- ordination has no fruit and co-ordination without cooperation has no root.
4. Write short note on `Acceptance theory’.
Acceptance theory is a theory which states that authority is the power that is accepted by others. Formal authority is reduced to nominal authority if it is not accepted by the subordinates. The subordinates accept the authority if the advantages to be derived by its acceptances exceed the...
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