Persuasive Speeches

Topics: Critical thinking, Consciousness, Attack Pages: 2 (303 words) Published: March 29, 2011
CONSTRAINTS ON EFFECTIVE PERSUASIVE SPEAKING

Selective Listening

-audience attends to messages, interprets them , and remembers them selectively -if vague or unclear the audience will “clarify” with their views -start with areas of agreement and move to differences

-audience may ignore message because of common ground

Selective Perception

Denial- refuse to accept a message that challenges them to change no matter what Dismissal- dispute that the message doesn’t apply to them
Belittling the Source- questioning credibility of source
Compartmentalization- avoid influence by keeping separate from their conflicting belief

Selective Influence

Polysemic- multiple meanings due to audience experiences, beliefs, and expectatiosn The Boomerang Effect- message turns back on speaker because it overwhelms audience

STRATEGIC RESOURCES FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Strengthening Commitment

- Consciousness Raising- making people aware of values and commitments that are taken for granted Moving from Education to Commitment- provide background information to understand issue Increasing the Sense of Urgency- 1. the issue is important 2. it could be decided either way 3. it will be decided soon 4. listener’s action are essentail

Weakening Commitment
Finding a Critical Distinction- invoke a different principle to audience Refutation- object to claim with new claim and object speaker’s inferences
1. Identify the position to be attacked
2. Explain significance of position
3. Present and develop the attack
4. Explain the impact of the refutation
Rebuilding Arguments
showing that the attack was flawed
developing independent reasons for the audience to believe the original claim

Conversion
-chip away at edged of belief
identify puzzling situations that cause quesitons
raise awareness
seek small changes
make audience believe you have interest
reluctant testimony- a statement that is at odds with your own interest biased evidence

Inducing a...

Cited: Zarefsky, Public Speaking: Strategies for Success, (Custom Edition), 2010.
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