Personality: the Enduring Patterns of Thought, Feeling, Motivation and Behaviour That Are Expressed in Different Circumstances.
Personality psychologists construct general theories of the structure of personality (the way personality processes are organised) and individual differences (the way people vary n their personality characteristics).
Personality theorists and Theories
Originator of psychodynamic theory: the term Psychodynamic refers to a wide group of theories that emphasize the overriding influence of instinctive drives and forces, and the importance of developmental experiences in shaping personality.
Topographic Model divides mental processes into
- Conscious: what we are aware of
- Preconscious: easily retrievable
- Unconscious: not easily accessible, repressed information
The topographic model is also used to understand dreams.
A central feature of Freud’s psychodynamic theory was its emphasis on
• Ambivalence (which is conflicting feelings or motives).
• Conflict (conflict or battle between opposing motives).
Ambivalence and conflict are the rule in mental life.
• Compromise formations (the solutions people develop to maximise fulfilment of conflicting motives simultaneously).
The topographic model addresses conflict between conscious and unconscious motives.
Drive/Instinct Model focuses on what drives or motivates people.
The model proposes 2 basic drives:
- Sex (Libido)
Developmental Model considered the development of the libidinal drive, the key to personality development and hence proposed a theory of psychosexual stages.
The development model is a model of how children develop
The psychosexual stages are the stages in the development of personality, sexuality and motivation.
FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
Oral: roughly the first 18 months of life, child explores the world through the mouth, which leads to dependence