Involves children during preschool to
primary grades; usually ages 21/2 to 6.
Combines movement abilities with
Engages children in movement activities that
integrates perception and movement.
Perceptual Motor Development
Researchers have difficulty defining this
term but perceptual-motor, sensory-motor
processes and their effect upon growth,
development, and learning has been
Perceptual motor development is based on
the works of Piaget, Gesell, and
• Importance of active movement for optimal
– Held & Hein dark environment study with
Kittens indicated that active kittens acquired
normal depth perception versus inactive.
– Individuals must attend to objects that move
in order to develop normal spatial skills
Sensory Motor Process
• Brain’s need for sensory stimulation is needed to
• Importance of sensory stimulation to develop is
-Typical grow and development trends
follows a sequence of events. The child passes
through developmental stages through
interaction with the environment. The
environment provided the sensory stimulation to
which the child adapts in order to grow &
develop (Moore, 1969).
• Ayres (1972) contends that inadequate sensory
integration accounts for some aspect of learning
-Sensory integrative therapy has become
popular as a intervention used primarily by
Piaget (1952) wrote that children develop through
sensory experiences of tactile (touch),
kinesthetic, visual, and auditory modalities which
later forms the child’s perception….sensory
experiences are a necessary part of the total
development of an individual.
The feedback process necessary for
correcting errors in movement was faulty
in children with learning disabilities.
Participation in basic forms of movement
would help the feedback problems and
consequently improve the child’s learning
of academic skills, such as reading and
Involvement in certain forms of movement
behavior facilitates intellectual development.
Key element was the development of hemispheric
dominance through the process know as
Patterning was where the patient would practice a
skill they missed or be passively be assisted
through movements which lacked hemispheric
Researching the Contentions of
Kepart & Delacato
• Meta-analysis of 180 studies indicated that:
– Children improved slightly in their cognitive ability
when involved in a perceptual motor program.
– Perceptual motor program as in intervention to
directly improve the child’s intelligence later in life was not support
• Many educators believe that a perceptual-motor
program is an excellent medium through which
reading, spelling, math, social studies, or math
can be facilitated.
By having your child involved in
perceptual-motor skills; they produced
positive changes in their motor
Perceptual Motor Learning
Comparison of Information
of present movement to past
movement stored in memory
Perceptual (Sensory) Motor
Improvement in the perceptual sensory system
occurs through environmental stimulation
Not all activities are perceptual activities
– Only activities involving children in sensory integration • Improve Balance (Vestibular)
• Spatial Awareness(Understanding external spaces around
the child- Audition & Vision)
• Temporal Awareness(Ability to predict when stimuli arrivesall senses) • Body &...
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